Two major Smad pathways in TGF-beta superfamily signalling.

  title={Two major Smad pathways in TGF-beta superfamily signalling.},
  author={Keiji Miyazawa and Masahiko Shinozaki and Takane Hara and Toshio Furuya and Kohei Miyazono},
  journal={Genes to cells : devoted to molecular & cellular mechanisms},
  volume={7 12},
Members of the transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) superfamily bind to two different serine/threonine kinase receptors, i.e. type I and type II receptors. Upon ligand binding, type I receptors specifically activate intracellular Smad proteins. R-Smads are direct substrates of type I receptors; Smads 2 and 3 are specifically activated by activin/nodal and TGF-beta type I receptors, whereas Smads 1, 5 and 8 are activated by BMP type I receptors. Nearly 30 proteins have been identified as… CONTINUE READING
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