Two-dimensional matter: order, curvature and defects

@article{Bowick2009TwodimensionalMO,
  title={Two-dimensional matter: order, curvature and defects},
  author={M. Bowick and L. Giomi},
  journal={Advances in Physics},
  year={2009},
  volume={58},
  pages={449 - 563}
}
Many systems in nature and the synthetic world involve ordered arrangements of units on two-dimensional surfaces. We review here the fundamental role payed by both the topology of the underlying surface and its Gaussian curvature. Topology dictates certain broad features of the defect structure of the ground state but curvature-driven energetics control the detailed structure of the ordered phases. Among the surprises are the appearance in the ground state of structures that would normally be… Expand
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