Two-dimensional gas of massless Dirac fermions in graphene

  title={Two-dimensional gas of massless Dirac fermions in graphene},
  author={Kostya S. Novoselov and Andre K. Geim and S. V. Morozov and Da Jiang and Mikhail I. Katsnelson and Irina V. Grigorieva and Sergey. V. Dubonos and Anatoly Firsov},
Quantum electrodynamics (resulting from the merger of quantum mechanics and relativity theory) has provided a clear understanding of phenomena ranging from particle physics to cosmology and from astrophysics to quantum chemistry. The ideas underlying quantum electrodynamics also influence the theory of condensed matter, but quantum relativistic effects are usually minute in the known experimental systems that can be described accurately by the non-relativistic Schrödinger equation. Here we… Expand
Quasiparticle dynamics in graphene
The effectively massless, relativistic behaviour of graphene’s charge carriers—known as Dirac fermions—is a result of its unique electronic structure, characterized by conical valence and conductionExpand
Graphene: New bridge between condensed matter physics and quantum electrodynamics
Abstract Graphene is the first example of truly two-dimensional crystals—it is just one layer of carbon atoms. It turns out to be a gapless semiconductor with unique electronic properties resultingExpand
Electronic properties of graphene in a strong magnetic field
We review the basic aspects of electrons in graphene (two-dimensional graphite) exposed to a strong perpendicular magnetic field. One of its most salient features is the relativistic quantum HallExpand
First direct observation of Dirac fermions in graphite
Originating from relativistic quantum field theory, Dirac fermions have been invoked recently to explain various peculiar phenomena in condensed-matter physics, including the novel quantum HallExpand
Quantum charged spinning massless particles in 2 + 1 dimensions
Motivated by the conduction properties of graphene discovered and studied in the last decades, we consider the quantum dynamics of a massless, charged, spin 1/2 relativistic particle in threeExpand
Observation of the fractional quantum Hall effect in graphene
The observation of the fractional quantum Hall effect in ultraclean, suspended graphene is reported and it is shown that at low carrier density graphene becomes an insulator with a magnetic-field-tunable energy gap. Expand
Relativistic quantum effects of Dirac particles simulated by ultracold atoms
Quantum simulation is a powerful tool to study a variety of problems in physics, ranging from high-energy physics to condensed-matter physics. In this article, we review the recent theoretical andExpand
Dynamical mean field study of the Dirac liquid
Renormalization is one of the basic notions of condensed matter physics. Based on the concept of renormalization, the Landau’s Fermi liquid theory has been able to explain, why despite the presenceExpand
Atomic collapse, Lorentz boosts, Klein scattering, and other quantum-relativistic phenomena in graphene
Abstract Electrons in graphene, which behave as massless relativistic Dirac particles, provide a new perspective on the relation between condensed matter and high-energy physics. We discuss atomicExpand
Dirac equation for quasi-particles in graphene and quantum field theory of their Coulomb interaction
There is evidence for existence of massless Dirac quasiparticles in graphene, which satisfy Dirac equation in (1+2) dimensions near the so called Dirac points which lie at the corners at theExpand


Quantum solid-state physics
This book treats the major problems of the quantum physics of solids, ranging from fundamental concepts to topical issues. Rather than use a deductive method of exposition, the authors consider andExpand
Disorder effects in two-dimensional d-wave superconductors.
It is shown that, in a d-wave superconductor, the density of states, averaged over randomness, follows a nontrivial power-law behavior near the Fermi energy: $\rho(\omega) \sim |\omega|^{\alpha}$. Expand
Unconventional integer quantum Hall effect in graphene.
It is demonstrated that monolayer graphite films have quasiparticle excitations that can be described by (2+1)-dimensional Dirac theory, which produces an unconventional form of the quantized Hall conductivity sigma(xy) = -(2e2/h)(2n+1) with n = 0, 1, ..., which notably distinguishes graphene from other materials where the integer quantum Hall effect was observed. Expand
Hall conductivity of a two-dimensional graphite system
Within a self-consistent Born approximation, the Hall conductivity of a two-dimensional graphite system in the presence of a magnetic field is studied by quantum transport theory. The HallExpand
Magnetic oscillations in planar systems with the Dirac-like spectrum of quasiparticle excitations. II. Transport properties
The quantum magnetic oscillations of electrical (Shubnikov-de Haas effect) and thermal conductivities are studied for graphene which represents a distinctive example of planar systems with a linear,Expand
Magnetic oscillations in planar systems with the Dirac-like spectrum of quasiparticle excitations
The quantum magnetic oscillations are studied for planar condensed-matter systems with a linear, Dirac-like spectrum of quasiparticle excitations. We derive analytical expressions for magneticExpand
Manifestation of Berry's Phase in Metal Physics
It is shown that in crystals the semiclassical quantization condition for energy levels of electrons in the magnetic field depends on Berry’s phase. When the electron orbit links to the band-contactExpand
Near Critical States of Random Dirac Fermions
Random Dirac fermions in a two-dimensional space are studied numerically. We realize them on a square lattice using the $\pi$-flux model with random hopping. The system preserves two symmetries, theExpand
Ultrathin epitaxial graphite: 2D electron gas properties and a route toward graphene-based nanoelectronics.
We have produced ultrathin epitaxial graphite films which show remarkable 2D electron gas (2DEG) behavior. The films, composed of typically three graphene sheets, were grown by thermal decompositionExpand
Localized states in a d-wave superconductor.
  • Lee
  • Physics, Medicine
  • Physical review letters
  • 1993
It is argued that even if the impurity concentration is small, the quasiparticles in the superconducting state become strongly localized for a short coherence length d-wave superconductor, which leads to thermally activated behavior for the microwave conductivity and possibly for the London penetration depth. Expand