Two-dimensional echocardiography using second harmonic imaging for the diagnosis of intracardiac right-to-left shunt: a meta-analysis of prospective studies

@article{Mojadidi2014TwodimensionalEU,
  title={Two-dimensional echocardiography using second harmonic imaging for the diagnosis of intracardiac right-to-left shunt: a meta-analysis of prospective studies},
  author={Mohammad Khalid Mojadidi and Jared S. Winoker and Scott C. Roberts and Pavlos Msaouel and Rubine Gevorgyan and Ronald Zolty},
  journal={The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging},
  year={2014},
  volume={30},
  pages={911-923}
}
Right-to-left shunting (RLS), usually through a patent foramen ovale (PFO), has been associated with migraine, cryptogenic stroke and hypoxemia. With emerging observational studies and clinical trials on the subject of PFO, there is a need for accurate diagnosis of PFO in patients being considered for transcatheter closure. While transesophageal echo (TEE) bubble study is the current standard reference for diagnosing PFO, transthoracic echo with second harmonic imaging (TTE-HI) may be a… CONTINUE READING
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