Transthoracic Echo-Doppler Assessment of Coronary Microvascular Function Late after Kawasaki Disease
4 cases of congenital coronary arteriovenous fistulae in children 20 days to 10 years old were studied by 2D echocardiography. The coronary fistulae were treated surgically in all four cases after biplane aortography and selective coronary arteriography. The visualisation of the coronary arteries was performed by systematic use of several echocardiographic views: - left parasternal short axis view through the aortic root, - apical view, - longitudinal and transverse subcostal views. 3 cases of coronary fistulae between the right coronary artery and a cardiac chamber were diagnosed on the basis of significant dilatation (9 to 12 mm) of the right coronary artery, though the origin and diameter of the left coronary artery were normal. 1 case of a fistulae from a single left coronary artery was not diagnosed despite the demonstration of dilatation of the left main stem. Conversely, there were no false positive 2D echocardiographic diagnoses during the study period. The communication of the coronary fistula to the receiving cardiac chamber was demonstrated in two cases (right atrium: 1 case, left atrium: 1 case, on apical and subcostal views. It was not possible to visualise the communication of the coronary fistula with the right ventricle in the other two cases. 2D echocardiography is a non-invasive method of diagnosing coronary arteriovenous fistulae, but the development of a fistula on a single left coronary artery is a potential source of diagnostic error.