Two cysteine substitutions in the MC1R generate the blue variant of the arctic fox (Alopex lagopus) and prevent expression of the white winter coat

  title={Two cysteine substitutions in the MC1R generate the blue variant of the arctic fox (Alopex lagopus) and prevent expression of the white winter coat},
  author={Dag Inge V{\aa}ge and Eva Fuglei and Kristin Snipstad and Janne Beheim and Veslem{\o}y Malm Landsem and Helge Klungland},

Figures and Tables from this paper

Missense polymorphisms in the MC1R gene of the dog, red fox, arctic fox and Chinese raccoon dog.
The whole coding sequence of the melanocortin receptor type 1 gene is examined in four species belonging to the Canidae family and the highest number of missense polymorphisms was until now found in the dog and red fox.
Missense SNP of the MC1R gene is associated with plumage variation in the Gyrfalcon (Falco rusticolus).
A single nucleotide polymorphism (MC1R: c.376A>G) in the MC1R gene was found to be highly correlated with pigment phenotype in the Gyrfalcon, indicating that melanism/albinism might also involve other loci.
Genetic variations of the coding region of the melanocortin receptor 1 (MC1R) gene in the fox.
Mutation and haplotype analysis indicated that c.373T>C in the coding region of the MC1R gene is probably associated with the brown phenotype of chocolate foxes, and c.13G>T andc.839T>G were important in distinguishing V. lagopus and V. vulpes.
Genetic polymorphisms in the 5'-flanking region of the melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R) gene in foxes
This work described and confirmed the different variants existed in the 5'-flanking region of MC1R gene between red foxes and arctic foxes, and may be extremely helpful for further exploring the alternative splicings or promoter activity of MC 1R gene for different coat-colored foxes.
The complete sequence of the mitochondrial genome of Arctic fox (Alopex lagopus)
The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Arctic fox (Alopex lagopus) was determined for the first time and contains 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNA genes, 2 ribosome RNA genes and 1 control region.
Potential Causative Mutation for Melanism in Rats Identified in the Agouti Signaling Protein Gene (Asip) of the Rattus rattus Species Complex on Okinawa Island, Japan
Phylogeographic analysis suggests the possibility of in-situ mutation of the Asip gene, either within the RrC lineage II population on Okinawa or in an unsampled R rC lineage I population with biogeographic links to Okinawa, although incomplete lineage sorting could not be ruled out.
A composite six bp in-frame deletion in the melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R) gene is associated with the Japanese brindling coat colour in rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus)
expression analyses of the c.[124A;125_130del6] allele suggest that MC1R transcription may be regulated epigenetically in rabbits with the Japanese brindling phenotype, and may be responsible for aMC1R variant determining eumelanin production in the black areas.
Isolation and Culture of Melanocytes from the Arctic Fox (Alopex Lagopus)
A method for isolation, purification and passage culture of melanocytes from the arctic fox (Alopex lagopus) is developed and validated, which yielded pure population of melanocyte which become efficient tools for investigating the function of colour genes and unraveling the process of melanin synthesis.
Two missense mutations in melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R) are strongly associated with dark ventral coat color in reindeer (Rangifer tarandus).
The protein-coding region of melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R) was sequenced to identify potential variation affecting coat color in reindeer (Rangifer tarandus), providing some evidence that these variants are more common in the domestic herds.


Melanocortin receptor 1 (MC1R) mutations and coat color in pigs.
Sequence analysis of MC1R from seven porcine breeds revealed a total of four allelic variants corresponding to five different E alleles, which suggest that one of these, L99P, may form a constitutively active receptor.
Melanocortin Receptor Variants with Phenotypic Effects in Horse, Pig, and Chicken
  • L. Andersson
  • Biology
    Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
  • 2003
The co‐segregation of alleles at MC1R and Extended black using a red jungle fowl × White Leghorn intercross and provide compelling evidence that these loci are identical.
A non-epistatic interaction of agouti and extension in the fox, Vulpes vulpes
The results, demonstrating the presence of dominant extension alleles in foxes with significant red coat colouration, suggest the ability of the fox agouti protein to counteract the signalling activity of a constitutively active fox MC1R.
Molecular characterization of the mouse agouti locus
The agouti gene: turned on to yellow.
Identification of a premature stop codon in the melanocyte-stimulating hormone receptor gene (MC1R) in Labrador and Golden retrievers with yellow coat colour.
A common founder is suggested for the yellow coat colour in Labrador and Golden retrievers as a result of an allele-specific-oligonucleotide (ASO) test shown that the mutation cosegregated with the recessively inherited yellow coat Colour in the Labrador retriever.
Molecular and pharmacological characterization of dominant black coat color in sheep
The pharmacological profile of the M73K change is unique compared to the constitutively active E92K mutation in the sombre mouse and C123R mutation inThe Alaska silver fox, indicating that the M 73K change activates the receptor via a mechanism distinct from these previously characterized mutations.
The role of melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH) receptor in bovine coat color determination
Three alleles of the MSH-receptor gene found in cattle are reported, with the wild-type allele E+ producing a variety of colors, reflecting the possibilities for regulating the normal receptor.
Fox colors in relation to colors in mice and sheep.
The hypothesis presented suggests that the loci A, B, and E all occur in foxes, both the red fox, Vulpes vulpes, and the arctic fox, Alopex lagopus, and two alleles are postulated at each locus in each species.