Two cross-linguistic factors underlying tongue shapes for vowels.

@article{Nix1996TwoCF,
  title={Two cross-linguistic factors underlying tongue shapes for vowels.},
  author={David A Nix and George Papcun and John Hogden and Igor Zlokarnik},
  journal={The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America},
  year={1996},
  volume={99 6},
  pages={3707-17}
}
Desirable characteristics of a vocal-tract parametrization include accuracy, low dimensionality, and generalizability across speakers and languages. A low-dimensional, speaker-independent linear parametrization of vowel tongue shapes can be obtained using the PARAFAC three-mode factor analysis procedure [Harshman et al., J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 62, 693-707 (1977)]. Harshman et al. applied PARAFAC to midsagittal x-ray vowel data from five English speakers, reporting that two speaker-independent… CONTINUE READING

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