Two carotenoid oxygenases contribute to mammalian provitamin A metabolism.


Mammalian genomes encode two provitamin A-converting enzymes as follows: the β-carotene-15,15'-oxygenase (BCO1) and the β-carotene-9',10'-oxygenase (BCO2). Symmetric cleavage by BCO1 yields retinoids (β-15'-apocarotenoids, C20), whereas eccentric cleavage by BCO2 produces long-chain (>C20) apocarotenoids. Here, we used genetic and biochemical approaches to clarify the contribution of these enzymes to provitamin A metabolism. We subjected wild type, Bco1(-/-), Bco2(-/-), and Bco1(-/-)Bco2(-/-) double knock-out mice to a controlled diet providing β-carotene as the sole source for apocarotenoid production. This study revealed that BCO1 is critical for retinoid homeostasis. Genetic disruption of BCO1 resulted in β-carotene accumulation and vitamin A deficiency accompanied by a BCO2-dependent production of minor amounts of β-apo-10'-carotenol (APO10ol). We found that APO10ol can be esterified and transported by the same proteins as vitamin A but with a lower affinity and slower reaction kinetics. In wild type mice, APO10ol was converted to retinoids by BCO1. We also show that a stepwise cleavage by BCO2 and BCO1 with APO10ol as an intermediate could provide a mechanism to tailor asymmetric carotenoids such as β-cryptoxanthin for vitamin A production. In conclusion, our study provides evidence that mammals employ both carotenoid oxygenases to synthesize retinoids from provitamin A carotenoids.

DOI: 10.1074/jbc.M113.501049
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@article{Amengual2013TwoCO, title={Two carotenoid oxygenases contribute to mammalian provitamin A metabolism.}, author={Jaume Amengual and Made Airanthi K. Widjaja-Adhi and Susana Rodriguez-Santiago and Susanne Hessel and Marcin Golczak and Krzysztof Palczewski and Johannes von Lintig}, journal={The Journal of biological chemistry}, year={2013}, volume={288 47}, pages={34081-96} }