Two-and-a-Half-Party Systems and the Comparative Role of the `Half'

  title={Two-and-a-Half-Party Systems and the Comparative Role of the `Half'},
  author={Alan. Siaroff},
  journal={Party Politics},
  pages={267 - 290}
In this article, the concept of the `two-and-a-half-party system' is re-examined, with particular focus on the role of the `half'. The analysis is on longer-term parliamentary democracies since 1945 or democratization. First, various ways of measuring a party system are outlined, and a new alternative is proposed. Based on this, 10 countries are seen to qualify (at least for certain time periods) as two-and-a-half-party systems: Australia, Austria, Belgium, Canada, Germany, Greece, Ireland… Expand

Tables from this paper

From Two-Partism to Alternating Predominance: The Changing UK Party System, 1950–2010
This article uses Sartori's classification of party systems to map changes in the post-war UK party system. Using measures of the effective number of parties and of parties' policy positions, theExpand
Small parties: From party pledges to government policy
When estimating a party's capacity for goal co-ordination, scholars need not only consider contextual constraints but also the party's properties, since these directly affect its strategic choices.Expand
Party System Change in Britain: Multi-Party Politics in a Multi-Level Polity
The classic two-party system of early post-war Britain has given way to a more complex picture in which distinctive party systems operate at national, regional, local and European level. Most, if notExpand
Australian Political Parties: Past, Present and Future
To many observers, depicting the character and trajectory of the Australian party system seems a simple enough task. The late colonial period saw the Australian Labor Party form. In response, theExpand
Which Parties Count? - The Effective Number of Parties in the Albanian Party System
The aim of this paper is to explore and understand the Albanian Party System. The analysis will cover the period from the collapse of the communist regime in 1991 until 2014. It will try toExpand
The Conservative Party and the “Centre Ground” of British Politics
Abstract This article examines the claim that the British Conservative Party has been too right‐wing and must shift to the centre ground if it is to win the next general election. Using data from theExpand
Neglected and Unloved: Does the Hinge Party Deserve That?
This article focuses on the hinge party both as a concept and a strategy. It seeks to ‘liberate’ the hinge party from the clutches of such close conceptual relatives as the ‘pivot party’, theExpand
Cleavages and the Two-Party System of Modern Greece
This study begins in 1974 for several reasons. First this year marks the fall of the seven year Junta dictatorship, and the transition to a parliamentary democracy that survives unchallenged to thisExpand
Bipolarisation of the Moroccan political party arena? Refuting this idea through an analysis of the party system
ABSTRACT The campaign for the October 7, 2016 election of the Moroccan House of Representatives, during which media attention was focused on the competition between the Islamist Party of Justice andExpand
The Effective Number of Parties At Four Scales
Different scholars count `the number of parties' in different ways, partly because they examine different parts of the political process and for different reasons. Sartori's qualitative approachExpand


Political Parties and Party Systems
This is an introduction to the study of political parties and party systems. It focuses primarily on liberal deocracies and the approach is a comparative one. The book's aim is to explain to studentsExpand
A Comparative Study of Canadian Parties
Useful studies of Canadian political parties are available, and doubtless others will be soon.' I am not trying to add another specifically Canadian study nor even to contribute new informationExpand
Patterns of democracy : government forms and performance in thirty-six countries
In this updated and expanded edition of his classic text, Arend Lijphart offers a broader and deeper analysis of worldwide democratic institutions than ever before. Examining thirty-six democraciesExpand
Comparative European Party Systems: An Analysis of Parliamentary Elections Since 1945
This book provides a comprehensive analysis of the party systems of the whole continent of Europe. This work also includes case studies of the Baltic States and Balkan democracies and goes as farExpand
Supplementing the effective number of parties
Abstract The effective number of parties, N =1/Σ p 2 i (where p i is the fractional share of the i th party), usually suffices to describe adequately a constellation of parties of differentExpand
The Structuring of Mass Politics in the Smaller European Democracies: A Developmental Typology*
There is a curious awkwardness about discussions of “types” in comparative politics. Aristotle and Montesquieu taught us to proceed by classifications of regimes, and the current generation ofExpand
Comparing Party Systems
  • 2002
Comparative European Parliamentary Systems: An Analysis
  • 2000
Comparative European Parliamentary Systems: An Analysis of Parliamentary Elections Since 1945
  • 2000
Modern Politics and Government, 6th edn
  • 2000