Pancreatic Arteriovenous Malformation Involving the Duodenum Embolized with Ethylene-Vinyl Alcohol Copolymer (Onyx)
Refractory ascites (RA) is thought to complicate the postoperative course of 5–7 % (Nishida et al. in Am J Transplant. 6: 140–149, 2006; Gotthardt et al. in Ann Transplant. 18: 378–383, 2013) of liver transplant recipients. RA after liver transplantation is often a frustrating diagnostic dilemma with few good management options unless an obvious mechanical factor is identified. Supportive therapies often fail until a treatable precipitating cause is identified and removed. We describe two patients who developed RA following liver transplantation for primary sclerosing cholangitis, and hepatitis C and alcoholic liver disease, respectively. The cause for RA was hyperkinetic portal hypertension secondary to splenomegaly in the first case and a pancreatic AVM in the 2nd case. After failure of other interventions, surgical splenectomy resulted in immediate and durable resolution of the previously intractable ascites.