Two Regulators of Vibrio parahaemolyticus Play Important Roles in Enterotoxicity by Controlling the Expression of Genes in the Vp-PAI Region

@article{Kodama2010TwoRO,
  title={Two Regulators of Vibrio parahaemolyticus Play Important Roles in Enterotoxicity by Controlling the Expression of Genes in the Vp-PAI Region},
  author={Toshio Kodama and Kazuyoshi Gotoh and Hirotaka Hiyoshi and Mikiharu Morita and Kaori Izutsu and Yukihiro Akeda and Kwon-sam Park and Vlademir Vicente Cantarelli and Rikard Dryselius and Tetsuya Iida and Takeshi Honda},
  journal={PLoS ONE},
  year={2010},
  volume={5}
}
Vibrio parahaemolyticus is an important pathogen causing food-borne disease worldwide. An 80-kb pathogenicity island (Vp-PAI), which contains two tdh (thermostable direct hemolysin) genes and a set of genes for the type III secretion system (T3SS2), is closely related to the pathogenicity of this bacterium. However, the regulatory mechanisms of Vp-PAI's gene expression are poorly understood. Here we report that two novel ToxR-like transcriptional regulatory proteins (VtrA and VtrB) regulate the… Expand
Vibrio parahaemolyticus VtrA is a membrane-bound regulator and is activated via oligomerization
TLDR
It is proposed that VtrA is active as oligomers, which may facilitate its N-terminus binding the target DNA, thus enhancing its transcriptional regulatory activity. Expand
Autoregulation of ToxR and Its Regulatory Actions on Major Virulence Gene Loci in Vibrio parahaemolyticus
TLDR
It is shown that the highest transcription level of toxR occurs at an OD600 = 0.2–0.4, which may be due to the subtle repression of ToxR and the quorum-sensing (QS) master regulator AphA, and that Tox R is involved in regulating the mouse lethality, enterotoxicity, cytotoxicity and hemolytic activity of V. parahaemolyticus. Expand
Bile Acid-Induced Virulence Gene Expression of Vibrio parahaemolyticus Reveals a Novel Therapeutic Potential for Bile Acid Sequestrants
TLDR
An insight is provided into how bacteria, through the ingenious action of Vp-PAI genes, can take advantage of an otherwise hostile host environment and reveal a new therapeutic potential for widely used bile acid sequestrants in enteric bacterial infections. Expand
QsvR integrates into quorum sensing circuit to control Vibrio parahaemolyticus virulence
TLDR
It is shown that three factors (QS regulators AphA and OpaR and an AraC-type transcriptional regulator QsvR) form a complex regulatory network to control the expression of T3SS1 and Vp-PAI genes. Expand
Transcription of Vibrio parahaemolyticus T3SS1 genes is regulated by a dual regulation system consisting of the ExsACDE regulatory cascade and H-NS.
TLDR
Findings indicate that the transcription of V. parahaemolyticus T3SS1 genes is regulated by a dual regulatory system consisting of the ExsACDE regulatory cascade and H-NS. Expand
Regulation of Vibrio parahaemolyticus T3SS2 gene expression and function of T3SS2 effectors that modulate actin cytoskeleton
TLDR
This review focuses on the regulation of T3 SS2 gene expression and T3SS2 effectors that specifically target the actin cytoskeleton in V. parahaemolyticus. Expand
Two DsbA Proteins Are Important for Vibrio parahaemolyticus Pathogenesis
TLDR
These findings demonstrate that DsbAs contribute to V. parahaemolyticus pathogenesis and show reduced attachment to Caco-2 cells, decreased β-hemolytic activity, and less toxicity to both zebrafish and HeLa cells. Expand
The Vibrio cholerae trh Gene Is Coordinately Regulated In Vitro with Type III Secretion System Genes by VttRA/VttRB but Does Not Contribute to Caco2-BBE Cell Cytotoxicity
TLDR
Transcriptional fusion analysis showed that in strain AM-19226, trh expression is regulated in a bile-dependent manner by a family of transmembrane transcriptional regulators that includes VttRA, VttRB, and ToxR, which is consistent with a more minor role for the V. cholerae TRH in T3SS-positive strains compared to the functions attributed to the Vibrio parahaemolyticus TDH and TRH proteins. Expand
Regulation by ToxR-Like Proteins Converges on vttRB Expression To Control Type 3 Secretion System-Dependent Caco2-BBE Cytotoxicity in Vibrio cholerae
TLDR
Using an in vitro mammalian cell model to investigate the role of three ToxR-like transmembrane transcriptional activators in causing T3SS-dependent cytotoxicity, it is found that expression levels and a hierarchical organization were important for promoting T3 SS gene expression. Expand
The role of type III secretion System 2 in Vibrio parahaemolyticus pathogenicity
TLDR
A novel mechanism of invasion that appears to be conserved by other marine bacteria is highlighted, highlighted in a review on recent findings for T3SS2 of V. parahaemolyticus. Expand
...
1
2
3
4
5
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 52 REFERENCES
Functional Characterization of Two Type III Secretion Systems of Vibrio parahaemolyticus
TLDR
Results provide evidence that V. parahaemolyticus TTSSs function as secretion systems and may have a role in the pathogenicity of the organism, and is the first report of functional T TSSs in Vibrio species. Expand
Vibrio parahaemolyticus has a homolog of the Vibrio cholerae toxRS operon that mediates environmentally induced regulation of the thermostable direct hemolysin gene
TLDR
Vp-ToxR and Vc-toxR share a strikingly similar function, i.e., direct stimulation at the transcriptional level of the gene encoding a major virulence determinant (enterotoxin) of a Vibrio species. Expand
Thermostable direct hemolysin gene of Vibrio parahaemolyticus: a virulence gene acquired by a marine bacterium
TLDR
Results of these genetic studies of the tdh gene indicate that TDH is a major virulence determinant of KP-positive V. parahaemolyticus strains and that the KP- positive phenotype results from highlevelexpression ofaparticulartdhgene, which makes the KP phenotype a good marker for a virulent strain. Expand
Identification and Characterization of a Novel Type III Secretion System in trh-Positive Vibrio parahaemolyticus Strain TH3996 Reveal Genetic Lineage and Diversity of Pathogenic Machinery beyond the Species Level
TLDR
These findings demonstrate that these two distinct types of T3SS are distributed not only within a species but also beyond the species level and provide a new insight into the pathogenicity and evolution of Vibrio species. Expand
Identification of Two Translocon Proteins of Vibrio parahaemolyticus Type III Secretion System 2
TLDR
Functional analysis of VopB2 and VopD2 showed that they are essential for T3SS2-dependent cytotoxicity, for the translocation of one of the T3 SS2 effector proteins (VopT), and for the contact-dependent activity of pore formation in infected cells in vitro. Expand
Identification of Proteins Secreted via Vibrio parahaemolyticus Type III Secretion System 1
TLDR
Flow cytometry analysis using fluorescence-activated cell sorting with fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled annexin V demonstrated that the TTSS1-dependent cell death was by apoptosis, and cytotoxicity to HeLa cells was related to one of the newly identified secreted proteins encoded by VP1680. Expand
Hfq regulates the expression of the thermostable direct hemolysin gene in Vibrio parahaemolyticus
TLDR
Hfq regulates the expression of virulence-associated factors such as TDH and may be involved in the pathogenicity of V. parahaemolyticus, according to results indicate that Hfq is closely associated with the expression level of the tdh gene. Expand
Identification and characterization of VopT, a novel ADP‐ribosyltransferase effector protein secreted via the Vibrio parahaemolyticus type III secretion system 2
TLDR
It is reported that T3SS2 induces a cytotoxic effect in Caco‐2 and HCT‐8 cells and it is revealed that VPA1327 (vopT), a gene encoded within the proximity of T3 SS2, is partly responsible for this cytotoxicity effect, indicating that VopT is a novel ADPRT effector secreted via V. parahaemolyticus T3ss. Expand
Enterotoxigenicity of Vibrio parahaemolyticus with and without genes encoding thermostable direct hemolysin
TLDR
Results indicate that TDH has an enterotoxigenic effect on rabbit small intestine and could be responsible for the watery diarrhea seen with V. parahaemolyticus. Expand
A type III secretion system in Vibrio cholerae translocates a formin/spire hybrid-like actin nucleator to promote intestinal colonization.
TLDR
In vitro domain analysis indicated that both FH1-like and WH2 domains are required for actin nucleation and polymerization activity, suggesting that VopF-mediated alteration of actin polymerization homeostasis is required for efficient intestinal colonization by T3SS+V. Expand
...
1
2
3
4
5
...