Two-Dimensional Languages

@inproceedings{Giammarresi1997TwoDimensionalL,
  title={Two-Dimensional Languages},
  author={Dora Giammarresi and Antonio Restivo},
  booktitle={Handbook of Formal Languages},
  year={1997}
}
The aim of this chapter is to generalize concepts and techniques of formal language theory to two dimensions. Informally, a two-dimensional string is called a picture and is defined as a rectangular array of symbols taken from a finite alphabet. A two-dimensional language (or picture language) is a set of pictures. 

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