Twitter Part-of-Speech Tagging for All: Overcoming Sparse and Noisy Data
Part-of-speech information is a prerequisite in many NLP algorithms. However, Twitter text is difficult to part-of-speech tag: it is noisy, with linguistic errors and idiosyncratic style. We present a detailed error analysis of existing taggers, motivating a series of tagger augmentations which are demonstrated to improve performance. We identify and evaluate techniques for improving English part-of-speech tagging performance in this genre. Further, we present a novel approach to system combination for the case where available taggers use different tagsets, based on vote-constrained bootstrapping with unlabeled data. Coupled with assigning prior probabilities to some tokens and handling of unknown words and slang, we reach 88.7% tagging accuracy (90.5% on development data). This is a new high in PTB-compatible tweet part-of-speech tagging, reducing token error by 26.8% and sentence error by 12.2%. The model, training data and tools are made available.