Twisted fracton models in three dimensions

@article{Song2019TwistedFM,
  title={Twisted fracton models in three dimensions},
  author={Hao Song and Abhinav Prem and Sheng-Jie Huang and Miguel A Martin-Delgado},
  journal={Physical Review B},
  year={2019}
}
We study novel three-dimensional quantum phases of matter which support particles with restricted mobility, including immobile "fracton" excitations. Many fracton models may be viewed as generalized Abelian lattice gauge theories. Here, by analogy with Dijkgraaf-Witten topological gauge theories, we discover a natural generalization of fracton models, obtained by twisting the gauge symmetries. Introducing generalized gauge transformation operators carrying extra phase factors depending on local… 
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