Turing centenary: Life's code script

  title={Turing centenary: Life's code script},
  author={Sydney Brenner},
  • S. Brenner
  • Published 22 February 2012
  • Computer Science, Medicine
  • Nature

Representation and Reality in Humans, Other Living Organisms and Intelligent Machines

This book project is based on several years of collaboration between two editors, and refers to historical attempts at making connections, with Wiener’s “Cybernetics: Or Control and Communication in the Animal and the Machine” (Wiener 1948), and Putnam's human-centric “Representation and Reality’ (Putnam 1988).

Hox genes underlie metazoan development, but what controls them?

Although metazoan development is conceived as resulting from gene regulatory networks (GRNs) controlled by Hox genes, a better analogy is computer architecture: i.e., a task accomplished in

Life as Thermodynamic Evidence of Algorithmic Structure in Natural Environments

A novel approach to behavioral evolutionary questions is used, using tools drawn from information theory, algorithmic complexity and the thermodynamics of computation to support an intuitive assumption about the near optimal structure of a physical environment that would prove conducive to the evolution and survival of organisms.

Will artificial intelligence help us in predicting outcomes in cardiac surgery?

An interesting systematic review and meta‐analysis on how machine learning may be a helpful tool for the prediction of outcomes in cardiac surgery and some potential ability to predict specific complications such as pancreatic fistula after pancreaticoduodenectomy is presented.

A system leverage points approach to governance for sustainable development

Governments are inherently responsible for citizens' well-being. Given that achieving sustainable development ["Development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of the

Information and the single cell

  • W. Fitch
  • Biology
    Current Opinion in Neurobiology
  • 2021

The Cognitome: Seeking the Fundamental Neuroscience of a Theory of Consciousness

  • K. Anokhin
  • Psychology
    Neuroscience and Behavioral Physiology
  • 2021

From Molecular Recognition to the “Vehicles” of Evolutionary Complexity: An Informational Approach

A genuine informational approach to evolutionary phenomena is advocated, in which systemic variation in the informational architectures may induce differential survival (self-construction, self-maintenance, and reproduction) of biological agents within their open ended environment.



A quantitative description of membrane current and its application to conduction and excitation in nerve.

This article concludes a series of papers concerned with the flow of electric current through the surface membrane of a giant nerve fibre by putting them into mathematical form and showing that they will account for conduction and excitation in quantitative terms.

Reaction-Diffusion Model as a Framework for Understanding Biological Pattern Formation

The essence of this theory for experimental biologists unfamiliar with the response-diffusion model is described, using examples from experimental studies in which the RD model is effectively incorporated.

Sequences and consequences

  • S. Brenner
  • Biology
    Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences
  • 2010
It is proposed that the correct level of abstraction is the cell and the outline of Cellmap, a design for a system to organize biological information is provided, to solve the forward problem of computing the behaviour of the system from its components and their interactions.

The chemical basis of morphogenesis

  • A. Turing
  • Environmental Science
    Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
  • 1952
A possible mechanism by which the genes of a zygote may determine the anatomical structure of the resulting organism is discussed, suggesting that certain well-known physical laws are sufficient to account for many of the facts.

Computing Machinery and Intelligence

  • A. Turing
  • Philosophy
    The Philosophy of Artificial Intelligence
  • 1950
The question, “Can machines think?” is considered, and the question is replaced by another, which is closely related to it and is expressed in relatively unambiguous words.