Tungsten effects on survival, growth, and reproduction in the earthworm, Eisenia fetida

  title={Tungsten effects on survival, growth, and reproduction in the earthworm, Eisenia fetida},
  author={Laura S. Inouye and Robert P. Jones and Anthony J. Bednar},
  journal={Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry},
To provide basic toxicity data for formulating risk characterization benchmarks, the effects of tungsten on survival, growth, and reproduction were investigated in the earthworm Eisenia fetida. Parallel studies with lead as a reference toxicant also were conducted. Although sodium tungstate (Na2WO4) was less acutely toxic than lead nitrate (Pb(NO3)2) in 14‐d spiked field soil acute toxicity assays (lethal concentrations for 50% of organisms: W, 6,250 mg/kg; Pb, 2,490 mg/kg), tungstate… 
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