Tungsten effects on survival, growth, and reproduction in the earthworm, Eisenia fetida.

  title={Tungsten effects on survival, growth, and reproduction in the earthworm, Eisenia fetida.},
  author={Laura S. Inouye and Robert S. P. Jones and Anthony J. Bednar},
  journal={Environmental toxicology and chemistry},
  volume={25 3},
To provide basic toxicity data for formulating risk characterization benchmarks, the effects of tungsten on survival, growth, and reproduction were investigated in the earthworm Eisenia fetida. Parallel studies with lead as a reference toxicant also were conducted. Although sodium tungstate (Na2WO4) was less acutely toxic than lead nitrate (Pb(NO3)2) in 14-d spiked field soil acute toxicity assays (lethal concentrations for 50% of organisms: W, 6,250 mg/kg; Pb, 2,490 mg/kg), tungstate… 
Toxicity of sodium tungstate to earthworm, oat, radish, and lettuce.
Results are consistent with the few other tungsten substance terrestrial toxicity studies in the literature.
Subcellular compartmentalization of lead in the earthworm, Eisenia fetida: Relationship to survival and reproduction.
The findings suggest the subcellular fractionation approach may not offer advantages over total Pb determination in short-term exposure studies but may become important when longer exposure periods are considered, and this suggests it may be possible to use such values to "factor out" matrix-specific influences that otherwise skew toxicity values when expressed relative to soil concentrations.
Effect of lead on survival, locomotion and sperm morphology of Asian earthworm, Pheretima guillelmi.
The sperm morphology of earthworms is presented, which shows potential as a sensitive biomarker for measuring the effects of heavy metal on reproduction and can tolerate a higher concentration of lead nitrate.
Evaluation of sublethal toxicity of zinc and chromium in Eudrilus eugeniae using biochemical and reproductive parameters
It can be implied from results that excessive free radical production and inadequate antioxidant defenses have lead to morphological alterations in sperms which sequentially reduced the reproductive rate.
Tungsten toxicity, bioaccumulation, and compartmentalization into organisms representing two trophic levels.
The results suggest snails consuming contaminated cabbage accumulated higher tungsten concentrations relative to the concentrations directly bioaccumulated from soil, indicating the importance of robust trophic transfer investigations.
Uptake Kinetics and Trophic Transfer of Tungsten from Cabbage to a Herbivorous Animal Model.
Based on synchrotron analysis, W was incorporated into the shell matrix during exposure, particularly during the regeneration of damaged shell, which offers the potential for application of the shell as a longer-term biomonitoring and forensics tool for historic exposure.
Assessing the fate and effects of nano aluminum oxide in the terrestrial earthworm, Eisenia fetida.
Results of the present study indicate that nano-sized Al2O3 may impact reproduction and behavior of E. fetida, although at high levels unlikely to be found in the environment.
Bioaccumulation of 14C60 by the earthworm Eisenia fetida.
Overall, the relatively low extent but rapid bioaccumulation of C(60) in E. fetida suggests the need for further studies on the potential for trophic transfer and biomagnification.
Influence of speciation on tungsten toxicity
Experimental results demonstrate that polytungstates are significantly more toxic than monotungstates, and stress the need for further studies of both environmental speciation of tungsten and toxicity of different tngsten compounds.
Tungsten uptake kinetics and trophic 1 transfer into a novel gastropod model 2
5 Previous investigations on the military relevant metal, tungsten (W), have paved the way for further 6 exploration of its relevant environmental and biological pathways. This investigation presents


Stimulating effects of low lead concentrations on growth and cocoon production of Eisenia fetida (Oligochaeta)
It is concluded that, although lead is known to be toxic at higher concentrations, sublethal concentrations close to the predicted EC5a and NOEC-values have a stimulating or hormetic effect on gr...
Effects of cadmium, copper, lead and zinc on growth, reproduction and survival of the earthworm Eisenia fetida (Savigny): Assessing the environmental impact of point-source metal contamination in terrestrial ecosystems.
It was confirmed that zinc is most likely to be responsible for the absence of earthworms from sites close to the Avonmouth works, since the OECD standard test overestimated the potential effects of metals on populations, since earthworms can be found as close as 1 km from the smelting works.
Changes in toxicity and bioavailability of lead in contaminated soils to the earthworm Eisenia fetida (Savigny 1826) after bone meal amendments to the soil.
Water and diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid-extractable soil Pb showed good correlations with earthworm Pb body load, and these extractions could be used as estimates for Pb bioavailability.
Effects of tetrathiotungstate and dithiotungstate on copper metabolism in rats.
No clinical or biochemical defects indicative of Cu deficiency developed in rats receiving WO2S2(2-) in their diet at concentrations up to 32 mg W/kg, and this oxythioanion enhanced the content of Cu in plasma liver and kidney, especially when dietary Cu was increased.
Conducting Ecological Risk Assessments of Inorganic Metals and Metalloids: Current Status
A great deal of progress has been made in the last three years, forming the basis for substantial improvements to ERA for metals, and key specific information required for ERA is delineated by major information category.
Physico-chemical speciation of trace elements in urban streams by size fractionation
Abstract Size fractionation methods have been used for the speciation of trace elements in several urban streams. Both filtration and ultrafiltration techniques were applied to separate the trace
Elimination of Toxic Heavy Metals From Small Caliber Ammunition.
Abstract : The investigation of the chemical stability and mobility of tungsten as contained in non-lead bullets was conducted during FY 98. The environmental stability and mobility of the powdered
The Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development
The problems of development assistance have loomed large on the OECD agenda ever since its establishment, first as the Organization for European Economic Cooperation (OEEC) and then as the
Review of metals action plan: An EPA Science Advisory Board Report
  • Science Advisory Board
  • 2002
Chronic dosing study to assess health and reproductive effects of tungsten–iron and tungsten–polymer shot on game-farm animals
  • Toxicologist 48(1-S):45
  • 1999