The tumor protein D52 (TPD52) is an oncogene overexpressed in breast cancer. Although the oncogenic effects of TPD52 are well recognized, how its expression and the role in migration/invasion is still not clear. This study tried to explore the regulative role of microRNA-34a (miR-34a), a tumor suppressive miRNA, on TPD52 expression in breast cancer. The expression of miR-34a was found significantly decreased in breast cancer specimens with lymph node metastases and breast cancer cell lines. The clinicopathological characteristics analyzed showed that lower expression levels of miR-34a were associated with advanced clinical stages. Moreover, TPD52 was demonstrated as one of miR-34a direct targets in human breast cancer cells. miR-34a was further found significantly repress epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and inhibit breast cancer cell migration and invasion via TPD52. These findings indicate that miR-34a inhibits breast cancer progression and metastasis through targeting TPD52. Consequently, our data strongly suggested that oncogenic TPD52 pathway regulated by miR-34a might be useful to reveal new therapeutic targets for breast cancer.