Tumor progression of skin carcinoma cells in vivo promoted by clonal selection, mutagenesis, and autocrine growth regulation by granulocyte colony-stimulating factor and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor.

Abstract

Tumor microenvironment is crucial for cancer growth and progression as evidenced by reports on the significance of tumor angiogenesis and stromal cells. Using the HaCaT/HaCaT-ras human skin carcinogenesis model, we studied tumor progression from benign tumors to highly malignant squamous cell carcinomas. Progression of tumorigenic HaCaT-ras clones to more… (More)

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