Tumor necrosis factor-alpha serum activity during treatment of acute decompensation of cachectic and non-cachectic patients with advanced congestive heart failure.

Abstract

Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) is a proinflammatory cytokine that produces left ventricular dysfunction and a negative inotropic effect in cardiac tissue when overexpressed in human subjects. Previous studies have shown that levels of circulating TNF-alpha are elevated in patients with advanced congestive heart failure (CHF) and especially in those… (More)

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