Tumor Staging and Grading: A Primer.

  title={Tumor Staging and Grading: A Primer.},
  author={Stacy M Telloni},
  journal={Methods in molecular biology},
Cancer staging and grading are used to predict the clinical behavior of malignancies, establish appropriate therapies, and facilitate exchange of precise information between clinicians. The internationally accepted criterion for cancer staging, the tumor-node-metastasis (TNM) system, includes: (1) tumor size and local growth (T), (2) extent of lymph node metastases (N), and (3) occurrence of distant metastases (M). Clinical stage is established before initiation of therapy and is determined by… CONTINUE READING
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