Tubular Injury in a Rat Model of Type 2 Diabetes Is Prevented by Metformin

OBJECTIVE Chronic hypoxia has been recognized as a key regulator in renal tubulointerstitial fibrosis, as seen in diabetic nephropathy, which is associated with the activation of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α. We assess here the effects of the biguanide, metformin, on the expression of HIF-1α in diabetic nephropathy using renal proximal tubular cells… CONTINUE READING