Tuberculosis

@article{Lawn2011Tuberculosis,
  title={Tuberculosis},
  author={Stephen D. Lawn and Alimuddin Zumla},
  journal={The Lancet},
  year={2011},
  volume={378},
  pages={57-72}
}
Early immune events in Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection and vaccination: protective role for GM-CSF in the primary immune response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection and recall responses following vaccination
TLDR
Overall this thesis demonstrates the importance ofGM-CSF in the primary and recall responses to Mtb infection and identifies ILCs as an early, innate source of GM- CSF.
Abdominal ultrasound for diagnosing abdominal tuberculosis or disseminated tuberculosis with abdominal involvement in HIV‐positive individuals
TLDR
The diagnostic accuracy of abdominal ultrasound for detecting abdominal tuberculosis or disseminated tuberculosis with abdominal involvement in HIV-positive individuals was determined to investigate potential sources of heterogeneity in test accuracy, including clinical setting, ultrasound training level, and type of reference standard.
Design issues and extensions of multi-arm multi-stage clinical trials
TLDR
The MAMS design, which compares multiple new treatments against a control in a single trial, obviating the need for multiple two-arm studies, and ceases recruitment to poorly performing arms during the study is extended to other types of outcome measure such as binary.
Systemic Manifestation of Miliary Tuberculosis in Patient With Advanced Diabetic Retinopathy Presenting With Electrolyte Imbalance, Seizures, and Adrenal Insufficiency
TLDR
A 50-year-old man of South Asian origin who presented with acute adrenal crisis on a background of undiagnosed miliary tuberculosis and remains well on anti-tuberculous chemotherapy, corticosteroids, and anti-epileptic medication is described.
Abnormal Tryptophan Metabolism in HIV and Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infection
TLDR
The recent advances regarding abnormal tryptophan metabolism in HIV and Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection are highlighted and its potential impact on immune regulation, disease progression, and neurological disorders is discussed.
Acute tubulointerstitial nephritis in a patient with early bronchial tuberculosis.
Association of TAP1 1177A>G and 2090A>G gene polymorphisms with latent tuberculosis infections in sheltered populations, in the metropolitan area of Guadalajara, Mexico: a pilot study
TLDR
The results suggest that carriers of the G allele of rs1135216 (A>G) are susceptible to LTBI, according to the codominant genetic model.
Inflammatory Determinants of Differential Tuberculosis Risk in Pre-Adolescent Children and Young Adults
TLDR
The findings suggest that myeloid inflammation is intrinsically lower in pre-pubescent children than in young adults, and the lower or more regulated pro-inflammatory responses may play a role in the lower risk of TB disease in this age group.
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References

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Model-Based Estimates of the Effects of Efavirenz on Bedaquiline Pharmacokinetics and Suggested Dose Adjustments for Patients Coinfected with HIV and Tuberculosis
TLDR
The results suggest that simple adjustments of the standard regimen during EFV coadministration can prevent reduced exposure to BDQ without increasing exposures to M2, however, exposure to M3 would increase.
Provisional CDC guidelines for the use and safety monitoring of bedaquiline fumarate (Sirturo) for the treatment of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis.
TLDR
This report provides provisional CDC guidelines for FDA-approved and unapproved, or off-label, uses of bedaquiline in certain populations, such as children, pregnant women, or persons with extrapulmonary MDR TB who were not included in the clinical trials for the drug.
The use of Xpert MTB / RIF assay for the detection of pulmonary and extrapulomnary tuberculosis and rifampicin resistance in adults and children
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World Health Organization. Interim guidance on the use of bedaquiline to treat MDR-TB
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Diagnostic accuracy of a urine lipoarabinomannan strip-test for TB detection in HIV-infected hospitalised patients
TLDR
It is indicated that the LAM strip-test may be a potentially useful rapid rule-in test for TB in hospitalised patients with advanced immunosuppression and the grade 2, but not the manufacturer-recommended grade 1 cut-off point, offered superior rule- in utility and inter-reader reliability.
Efficacy, safety and tolerability of linezolid containing regimens in treating MDR-TB and XDR-TB: systematic review and meta-analysis
TLDR
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Fluoroquinolones for the Treatment of Pulmonary Tuberculosis
TLDR
The review of the literature does not support the use of older fluoroquinolones, especially ciprofloxacin, as substitute agents for drug-sensitive or drug-resistant TB, however, newer fluoroquolone, such as moxifloxacins, may be a reasonable alternative based on results from one large clinical trial.
High Diagnostic Yield of Tuberculosis From Screening Urine Samples From HIV-Infected Patients With Advanced Immunodeficiency Using The Xpert MTB/RIF Assay
TLDR
Urine Xpert testing provides a means of rapid TB diagnosis in patients with advanced immunodeficiency and poor prognosis and is indicative of high rates of TB dissemination and renal involvement in this clinical population.
Linezolid for the treatment of complicated drug-resistant tuberculosis: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
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    The international journal of tuberculosis and lung disease : the official journal of the International Union against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
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TLDR
Treatment success with linezolid was equal to or better than that commonly achieved for uncomplicated DR-TB, and better than previous reports for previously treated patients and those with XDR-TB.
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