Tryptophan-based chromophore in fluorescent proteins can be anionic

@inproceedings{Sarkisyan2012TryptophanbasedCI,
  title={Tryptophan-based chromophore in fluorescent proteins can be anionic},
  author={Karen S. Sarkisyan and Ilia V Yampolsky and Kyril M Solntsev and Sergey A. Lukyanov and Konstantin A. Lukyanov and Alexander S. Mishin},
  booktitle={Scientific reports},
  year={2012}
}
Cyan fluorescent proteins (CFP) with tryptophan66-based chromophore are widely used for live cell imaging. In contrast to green and red fluorescent proteins, no charged states of the CFP chromophore have been described. Here, we studied synthetic CFP chromophore and found that its indole group can be deprotonated rather easily (pKa 12.4).We then reproduced this effect in the CFP mCerulean by placing basic amino acids in the chromophore microenvironment. As a result, green-emitting variant with… CONTINUE READING
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