Trouble in Store: Probes, Protests, and Store Openings by Wal‐Mart, 1998–20071

  title={Trouble in Store: Probes, Protests, and Store Openings by Wal‐Mart, 1998–20071},
  author={Paul Ingram and Lori Qingyuan Yue and Hayagreeva Rao},
  journal={American Journal of Sociology},
  pages={53 - 92}
The authors consider how uncertainty over protest occurrence shapes the strategic interaction between companies and activists. Analyzing Wal‐Mart, the authors find support for their theory that companies respond to this uncertainty through a “test for protest” approach. In Wal‐Mart’s case, this consists of low‐cost probes in the form of new store proposals. They then withdraw if they face protests, especially when those protests signal future problems. Wal‐Mart is more likely to open stores… 
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