Tropical cyclones and permanent El Niño in the early Pliocene epoch

  title={Tropical cyclones and permanent El Ni{\~n}o in the early Pliocene epoch},
  author={Alexey V. Fedorov and Chris M. Brierley and Kerry A. Emanuel},
Tropical cyclones (also known as hurricanes and typhoons) are now believed to be an important component of the Earth’s climate system. In particular, by vigorously mixing the upper ocean, they can affect the ocean’s heat uptake, poleward heat transport, and hence global temperatures. Changes in the distribution and frequency of tropical cyclones could therefore become an important element of the climate response to global warming. A potential analogue to modern greenhouse conditions, the… 
Simulating Pliocene warmth and a permanent El Niño‐like state: The role of cloud albedo
Available evidence suggests that during the early Pliocene (4–5 Ma) the mean east-west sea surface temperature (SST) gradient in the equatorial Pacific Ocean was significantly smaller than today,
Tropical cyclone genesis across palaeoclimates
Tropical cyclone genesis is investigated for the Pliocene, Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) and the mid-Holocene through analysis of five climate models. The genesis potential index is used to estimate
Evolution of tropical cyclone genesis regions during the Cenozoic era
Model simulations show that tropical cyclones were preferably formed in the Southern Hemisphere during the warmer Early Eocene, but then shifted along a cooling climate across the Cenozoic to the Northern Hemisphere, and today's conditions favoring the western North Pacific as the largest genesis center is a result of closing tropical seaways during the Pliocene.
Sea surface height evidence for long-term warming effects of tropical cyclones on the ocean
The long-term effect of cyclones is to warm the ocean at a rate of 0.32 ± 0.15 PW between 1993 and 2009, making cyclones potentially important modulators of the climate by affecting heat transport in the ocean–atmosphere system.
Late Miocene decoupling of oceanic warmth and atmospheric carbon dioxide forcing
It is proposed that a relatively deep global thermocline, reductions in low-latitude gradients in sea surface temperature, and cloud and water vapour feedbacks may help to explain the warmth of the late Miocene.
Permanent El Niño during the Pliocene warm period not supported by coral evidence
It is shown that permanent El Niño conditions did not exist during the Pliocene warm period, and coral-based analysis identifies climate variability at the temporal scale required to resolve ENSO structure firmly.
Climate impacts of intermittent upper ocean mixing induced by tropical cyclones
[1] Tropical cyclones (TC) represent a powerful, albeit highly transient forcing able to redistribute ocean heat content locally. Recent studies suggest that TC-induced ocean mixing can have global
Geological Oceanography of the Pliocene Warm Period: A Review with Predictions on the Future of Global Warming
  • Markes E. Johnson
  • Environmental Science, Geography
    Journal of Marine Science and Engineering
  • 2021
Atmospheric carbon dioxide reached a record concentration of 419 parts per million in May 2021, 50% higher than preindustrial levels at 280 parts per million. The rise of CO2 as a heat-trapping gas
Tropical Cyclone–Induced Thermocline Warming and Its Regional and Global Impacts
AbstractStrong surface winds of a hurricane locally cool the surface and warm the subsurface waters via turbulent mixing processes. While the surface cool anomalies generally decay in roughly a


The Pliocene Paradox (Mechanisms for a Permanent El Niño)
A future melting of glaciers, changes in the hydrological cycle, and a deepening of the thermocline could restore the warm conditions of the early Pliocene.
El Nino's tropical climate and teleconnections as a blueprint for pre-Ice Age climates
[1] At ∼2.7 million years ago the warm equable climates of early and “middle” Pliocene time (used here to mean from ∼5 to ∼2.7 Ma) were replaced by recurring ice ages. Most attempts to explain the
Warm upwelling regions in the Pliocene warm period
[1] Given the importance of upwelling processes to coastal productivity and regional climate, it is critical to study the role of upwelling regions within the context of global climate change. We
Permanent El Niño-Like Conditions During the Pliocene Warm Period
During the warm early Pliocene (∼4.5 to 3.0 million years ago), the most recent interval with a climate warmer than today, the eastern Pacific thermocline was deep and the average west-to-east sea
Observational evidence for an ocean heat pump induced by tropical cyclones
The results indicate that tropical cyclones are responsible for significant cooling and vertical mixing of the surface ocean in tropical regions, and the magnitude of this mixing is strongly related to sea surface temperature, indicating that future changes in tropical sea surface temperatures may have significant effects on ocean circulation and ocean heat transport that are not currently accounted for in climate models.
Tropical Cyclone–Induced Upper-Ocean Mixing and Climate: Application to Equable Climates
Abstract Tropical cyclones instigate an isolated blast of vigorous mixing in the upper tropical oceans, stirring warm surface water with cooler water in the thermocline. Previous work suggests that
Abrupt Climate Changes: How Freshening of the Northern Atlantic Affects the Thermohaline and Wind-Driven Oceanic Circulations
Leading hypotheses for abrupt climate changes are focused on the ocean response to a freshening of surface waters in the north Atlantic. The degree to which such a freshening affects the deep, slow
Mid-Pliocene equatorial Pacific sea surface temperature reconstruction: a multi-proxy perspective
  • H. DowsettM. Robinson
  • Environmental Science, Geography
    Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences
  • 2008
It is improbable that increased greenhouse gases (GHG) alone would cause such a heterogeneous warming and more likely that the cause of Mid-Pliocene warmth is a combination of several forcings including both increased meridional heat transport and increased GHG.
Simulated reduction in Atlantic hurricane frequency under twenty-first-century warming conditions
Using projected boundary conditions for the end of the twenty-first century, the frequency of Atlantic tropical cyclones and hurricanes in a regional climate model of the Atlantic basin is reduced