Trivalent Chromium: Assessing the Genotoxic Risk of an Essential Trace Element and Widely Used Human and Animal Nutritional Supplement

@article{Eastmond2008TrivalentCA,
  title={Trivalent Chromium: Assessing the Genotoxic Risk of an Essential Trace Element and Widely Used Human and Animal Nutritional Supplement},
  author={D. Eastmond and J. T. Macgregor and R. Slesinski},
  journal={Critical Reviews in Toxicology},
  year={2008},
  volume={38},
  pages={173 - 190}
}
Trivalent chromium [Cr(III)] is recognized as an essential nutrient, and is widely used as a nutritional supplement for humans and animals. Recent reports of the induction of genetic damage in cultured cells exposed to Cr(III) compounds in vitro have heightened the concern that Cr(III) compounds may exert genotoxic effects under certain conditions, raising the question of the relative benefit versus risk of dietary and feed supplementation practices. We have reviewed the literature since 1990… Expand
Chromium (III) and chromium (VI) as important players in the induction of genotoxicity - current view.
TLDR
The aim of this review is to present the current knowledge about the induction of genotoxicity from two forms of chromium: trivalent (III) and hexavalent (VI). Expand
[Biological significance of chromium III for the human organism].
TLDR
A critical analysis of reports dealing with the effect of chromium on the carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, body composition, lean body mass and sports performance was carried out, indicating a need to clarify the mechanism of psychiatric and endocrine activity, especially in conjunction with the immune system. Expand
Environmental Presence of Hexavalent but Not Trivalent Chromium Causes Neurotoxicity in Exposed Drosophila melanogaster
TLDR
Evidence of environmental Cr(VI)-induced adversities on the brain of exposed Drosophila along with behavioral deficit which would likely to have relevance in humans is provided and Dosophila is recommended as a model for neurotoxicity. Expand
The genotoxicity of physiological concentrations of chromium (Cr(III) and Cr(VI)) and cobalt (Co(II)): an in vitro study.
TLDR
It is concluded that these metal ions can cause chromosome aberrations at physiological concentrations and that their main effect is aneugenic. Expand
A novel strategy for Cr(III) and Cr(VI) analysis in dietary supplements by speciated isotope dilution mass spectrometry.
TLDR
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The Double Face of Metals: The Intriguing Case of Chromium
Chromium (Cr) is a common element in the Earth’s crust. It may exist in different oxidation states, Cr(0), Cr(III) and Cr(VI), with Cr(III) and Cr(VI) being relatively stable and largely predominant.Expand
Effects of Chromium Picolinate on Oxidative Damage in Primary Piglet Hepatocytes
TLDR
It is suggested that the appropriate dose (approximately physiological concentration) of chromium picolinate can inhibit lipid peroxidation, and high doses have no significant effects on oxidative damage in piglet hepatocytes, but the existing evidence also imply that exposure to a higher dose appears to be unwarranted. Expand
Study of Oxidative Damage in Growing–Finishing Pigs with Continuous Excess Dietary Chromium Picolinate Intake
TLDR
Results suggested that long-term exposure to different doses of CrPic in feed did not increase the formation of biomarkers of oxidative damage in growing–finishing pigs, and excessive dietary CrPic intake was not recommended in this study. Expand
Chromium-Induced Genotoxicity and Interference in Human Lymphoblastoid Cell (TK6) Repair Processes
TLDR
Evidence indicates that a high proportion of the Cr-induced DNA damage is correlated with oxidative damage, and that both Cr compounds interfere with repair mechanisms involved in repair of DNA damage induced by gamma radiation. Expand
Arsenic toxicity in the human nerve cell line SK-N-SH in the presence of chromium and copper.
TLDR
Among the three elements present in wood leachates, As played the primary role in the observed toxic effects, which were exerted through multiple pathways, including the generation of oxidative stress, which did not obviously appear to impact toxicity. Expand
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