Trivalent Chromium: Assessing the Genotoxic Risk of an Essential Trace Element and Widely Used Human and Animal Nutritional Supplement

@article{Eastmond2008TrivalentCA,
  title={Trivalent Chromium: Assessing the Genotoxic Risk of an Essential Trace Element and Widely Used Human and Animal Nutritional Supplement},
  author={David A. Eastmond and James T. Macgregor and Ronald S. Slesinski},
  journal={Critical Reviews in Toxicology},
  year={2008},
  volume={38},
  pages={173 - 190}
}
Trivalent chromium [Cr(III)] is recognized as an essential nutrient, and is widely used as a nutritional supplement for humans and animals. Recent reports of the induction of genetic damage in cultured cells exposed to Cr(III) compounds in vitro have heightened the concern that Cr(III) compounds may exert genotoxic effects under certain conditions, raising the question of the relative benefit versus risk of dietary and feed supplementation practices. We have reviewed the literature since 1990… 
Chromium (III) and chromium (VI) as important players in the induction of genotoxicity - current view.
TLDR
The aim of this review is to present the current knowledge about the induction of genotoxicity from two forms of chromium: trivalent (III) and hexavalent (VI).
[Biological significance of chromium III for the human organism].
TLDR
A critical analysis of reports dealing with the effect of chromium on the carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, body composition, lean body mass and sports performance was carried out, indicating a need to clarify the mechanism of psychiatric and endocrine activity, especially in conjunction with the immune system.
Genotoxicity of chromium (III) and cobalt (II) and interactions between them
Abstract Introduction. Chromium and cobalt are essential trace elements that are required only in a small amount, otherwise their excess can cause toxic effects. Aim. The aim of this study was to
Environmental Presence of Hexavalent but Not Trivalent Chromium Causes Neurotoxicity in Exposed Drosophila melanogaster
TLDR
Evidence of environmental Cr(VI)-induced adversities on the brain of exposed Drosophila along with behavioral deficit which would likely to have relevance in humans is provided and Dosophila is recommended as a model for neurotoxicity.
The Double Face of Metals: The Intriguing Case of Chromium
TLDR
The important role ofCr(III) for human health and the dangerousness of Cr(VI) as a toxic element are underline.
Effects of Chromium Picolinate on Oxidative Damage in Primary Piglet Hepatocytes
TLDR
It is suggested that the appropriate dose (approximately physiological concentration) of chromium picolinate can inhibit lipid peroxidation, and high doses have no significant effects on oxidative damage in piglet hepatocytes, but the existing evidence also imply that exposure to a higher dose appears to be unwarranted.
Oxidative stress of Cr(III) and carcinogenesis
Study of Oxidative Damage in Growing–Finishing Pigs with Continuous Excess Dietary Chromium Picolinate Intake
TLDR
Results suggested that long-term exposure to different doses of CrPic in feed did not increase the formation of biomarkers of oxidative damage in growing–finishing pigs, and excessive dietary CrPic intake was not recommended in this study.
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