Trivalent Chromium: Assessing the Genotoxic Risk of an Essential Trace Element and Widely Used Human and Animal Nutritional Supplement

  title={Trivalent Chromium: Assessing the Genotoxic Risk of an Essential Trace Element and Widely Used Human and Animal Nutritional Supplement},
  author={David A. Eastmond and James T. Macgregor and Ronald S. Slesinski},
  journal={Critical Reviews in Toxicology},
  pages={173 - 190}
Trivalent chromium [Cr(III)] is recognized as an essential nutrient, and is widely used as a nutritional supplement for humans and animals. Recent reports of the induction of genetic damage in cultured cells exposed to Cr(III) compounds in vitro have heightened the concern that Cr(III) compounds may exert genotoxic effects under certain conditions, raising the question of the relative benefit versus risk of dietary and feed supplementation practices. We have reviewed the literature since 1990… 
Chromium (III) and chromium (VI) as important players in the induction of genotoxicity - current view.
The aim of this review is to present the current knowledge about the induction of genotoxicity from two forms of chromium: trivalent (III) and hexavalent (VI).
[Biological significance of chromium III for the human organism].
A critical analysis of reports dealing with the effect of chromium on the carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, body composition, lean body mass and sports performance was carried out, indicating a need to clarify the mechanism of psychiatric and endocrine activity, especially in conjunction with the immune system.
Genotoxicity of chromium (III) and cobalt (II) and interactions between them
Abstract Introduction. Chromium and cobalt are essential trace elements that are required only in a small amount, otherwise their excess can cause toxic effects. Aim. The aim of this study was to
Environmental Presence of Hexavalent but Not Trivalent Chromium Causes Neurotoxicity in Exposed Drosophila melanogaster
Evidence of environmental Cr(VI)-induced adversities on the brain of exposed Drosophila along with behavioral deficit which would likely to have relevance in humans is provided and Dosophila is recommended as a model for neurotoxicity.
The Double Face of Metals: The Intriguing Case of Chromium
The important role ofCr(III) for human health and the dangerousness of Cr(VI) as a toxic element are underline.
Effects of Chromium Picolinate on Oxidative Damage in Primary Piglet Hepatocytes
It is suggested that the appropriate dose (approximately physiological concentration) of chromium picolinate can inhibit lipid peroxidation, and high doses have no significant effects on oxidative damage in piglet hepatocytes, but the existing evidence also imply that exposure to a higher dose appears to be unwarranted.
Oxidative stress of Cr(III) and carcinogenesis
Study of Oxidative Damage in Growing–Finishing Pigs with Continuous Excess Dietary Chromium Picolinate Intake
Results suggested that long-term exposure to different doses of CrPic in feed did not increase the formation of biomarkers of oxidative damage in growing–finishing pigs, and excessive dietary CrPic intake was not recommended in this study.


In vivo distribution of chromium from chromium picolinate in rats and implications for the safety of the dietary supplement.
The tissue distribution, urinary and fecal loss, and subcellular hepatocyte distribution and concentration of the labels suggest that [Cr(pic)(3)] has a lifetime of less than 1 day in vivo, minimizing the potential threat from the supplement itself.
Safety and toxicological evaluation of a novel niacin-bound chromium (III) complex.
Evaluation of the potential genotoxicity of chromium picolinate in mammalian cells in vivo and in vitro.
A comparison of the in vitro genotoxicity of tri- and hexavalent chromium.
Safety and toxicological evaluation of a novel chromium(III) dinicocysteinate complex
Clinical and histopathological evaluation of CDNC identified a dose level of 5.7 mg/kg/day as the no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) and demonstrated the broad spectrum safety ofCDNC.
Genotoxicity of chromium compounds. A review.
Determining the safety of chromium tripicolinate for addition to foods as a nutrient supplement.
  • T. Berner, M. Murphy, R. Slesinski
  • Chemistry, Medicine
    Food and chemical toxicology : an international journal published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association
  • 2004
A prediction of chromium(III) accumulation in humans from chromium dietary supplements
The use of chromium supplements for extended periods or in excess dosages should be reevaluated in terms of these established models, which predict that chromium(III) can accumulate in human tissues to reach the levels at which DNA damage has been observed in animals and in vitro.
Carcinogenic Cr(VI) and the nutritional supplement Cr(III) induce DNA deletions in yeast and mice.
It is concluded that both the environmental contaminant Cr(VI) and the nutritional supplement Cr(III) increase DNA deletions in vitro and in vivo, when ingested via drinking water.