Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis.
- Journal of clinical apheresis
Paragangliomas are tumors arising from the extra-adrenal paragangliar neural crest cells. The sympathoadrenal neuroendocrine system consists of extra-adrenal paragangliar cellular layer along the paravertebral and para-aortic axis, and the adrenal medullae. Paraganglioma should be included in the differential diagnosis of secondary erythrocytosis due to its possible ectopic erythropoietin (EPO) secretion. Thus, in this report we present a 24-year-old female patient with onset of unregulated ectopic EPO secretion, and consecutive erythrocytosis followed by hypertension, secondary to paraganglioma of multifocal retroperitoneal localization. Clinical, laboratory, and radiological investigations confirmed both an elevated EPO level and the presence of multiple paraganglioma. This paraneoplastic-mediated medical condition with high risk of cellular hyperviscosity syndrome (CHVS) requires prompt diagnosis and rapid therapeutic interventions. Initially, simple phlebotomy procedures were used; following that, tumors were surgically removed. In the course of the disease, this tumor relapsed, and urgent apheresis, as a treatment of life-threatening state, was used. The therapy performed resulted in a rapid blood viscosity depletion and a significant (P < 0.01) serum EPO reduction, as well as the general clinical benefit. Therefore, we conclude that the use of our own "multi-manner" apheresis (erythrocythapheresis plus plasma exchange), for long-time interval (until further causative therapy), effectively cross-bridged the possible hazards of EPO-dependent CHVS.