Triple Helix Systems: An Analytical Framework for Innovation Policy and Practice in the Knowledge Society

@article{Ranga2013TripleHS,
  title={Triple Helix Systems: An Analytical Framework for Innovation Policy and Practice in the Knowledge Society},
  author={Marina Ranga and Henry Etzkowitz},
  journal={Industry and Higher Education},
  year={2013},
  volume={27},
  pages={237 - 262}
}
This paper introduces the concept of Triple Helix systems as an analytical construct that synthesizes the key features of university–industry–government (Triple Helix) interactions into an ‘innovation system’ format, defined according to systems theory as a set of components, relationships and functions. Among the components of Triple Helix systems, a distinction is made between (a) R&D and non-R&D innovators; (b) ‘single-sphere’ and ‘multi-sphere’ (hybrid) institutions; and (c) individual and… 

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