Tripartite synapses: glia, the unacknowledged partner

  title={Tripartite synapses: glia, the unacknowledged partner},
  author={Alfonso Araque and Vladimir Parpura and Rita P. Sanzgiri and Philip G Haydon},
  journal={Trends in Neurosciences},

Figures from this paper

Gliotransmission and the tripartite synapse.
By releasing gliotransmitters in millisecond time scale with a specific vesicular apparatus, astrocytes can integrate and process synaptic information and control or modulate synaptic transmission and plasticity.
GLIA modulates synaptic transmission
Roles for gliotransmission in the nervous system
It is inarguable that astrocytes play essential roles in nervous system function, and that gliotransmission modulates synapses, but a significant challenge lies in developing the appropriate experimental strategy to allow unequivocal identification of roles for gliottransmission in nervousSystem function.
Astrocytic control of synaptic function
The existing anatomical and functional evidence of local interactions between astrocytes and synapses is reviewed, and how it underlies a role for astroCytes in the computation of synaptic information is reviewed.
Synaptic regulation of the astrocyte calcium signal
The present article reviews and discusses the current knowledge of the properties of the astrocyte intracellular Ca2+ signal and its modulation by the synaptic activity.


Glial contributions to excitatory neurotransmission in cultured hippocampal cells
It is shown here that glial transporter responses may be used to sense changes in presynaptic efficacy and thatglial uptake helps to remove syn-aptically released glutamate, thereby contributing to the termination of excitatory synaptic currents under certain conditions.
Synaptic efficacy enhanced by glial cells in vitro.
Developing neurons in culture form inefficient synapses that require glial signals to become fully functional, and the role of glial cells in synapse formation and function was studied in cultures of purified neurons from the rat central nervous system.
Neurotransmitter‐mediated signaling between axons and glial cells
Observations have been postulated to reflect receptor‐mediated signaling, including a mechanism in which glutamate is released from axons via the reversal of a transporter and induces intracellular calcium spiking in glial cells via metabotropic glutamate receptors.
Direct signaling from astrocytes to neurons in cultures of mammalian brain cells.
Astrocytes are shown to directly modulate the free cytosolic calcium, and hence transmission characteristics, of neighboring neurons, which suggests that the astrocytic-neuronal signaling is mediated through intercellular connections rather than synaptically.
The Fine Structure of the Nervous System.
This is the first atlas of the ultrastructure of the mature nervous system and it is a relatively complete collection of elegant micrographs with an accompanying text that explores the role that thin astrocytic processes may play in isolating receptive surfaces, thereby preventing axon terminals from influencing.