Trimipramine: A challenge to current concepts on antidepressives

  title={Trimipramine: A challenge to current concepts on antidepressives},
  author={M. Berger and Markus Gastpar},
  journal={European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience},
  • M. Berger, M. Gastpar
  • Published 2005
  • Psychology, Medicine
  • European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
Although it is chemically a classical tricyclic antidepressant agent, trimipramine shows atypical pharmacological properties. Its well-documented antidepressant action cannot be explained by noradrenaline or serotonin reuptake inhibition or by a down-regulation of β-adrenoceptors. Furthermore, its receptor affinity profile resembles more that of clozapine, a neuroleptic drug, than that of tricyclic antidepressants. Trimipramine does not reduce, but rather increases, rapid eye movement sleep. It… 
Tranylcypromine in mind (Part I): Review of pharmacology
TCP is characterized by an exceptional pharmacology which is different to most other antidepressant drugs, and a more special evaluation of clinical efficacy and safety may therefore be needed.
The effect of trimipramine on dream recall and dream emotions in depressive outpatients
The present findings support the continuity hypothesis of dreaming by demonstrating a close link between waking-life symptomatolgy and negative dream emotions.
Insomnia: pathophysiology and implications for treatment.
The evidence that primary insomnia may be linked with mood disorders and is associated with HPA axis overactivity and excess secretion of CRF, adrenocorticotropin releasing hormone, and cortisol is strengthened.
Interactions of recombinant human histamine H1, H2, H3, and H4 receptors with 34 antidepressants and antipsychotics
Potencies HxR as well as potencies and (inverse) agonistic efficacies of 34 antidepressants and antipsychotics at HxRs in functional assays are investigated and the possible role of the H2R antagonism of clozapine for neutropenia/agranulocytosis induced by this compound is discussed.
Knockout of the norepinephrine transporter and pharmacologically diverse antidepressants prevent behavioral and brain neurotrophin alterations in two chronic stress models of depression
It is shown that chronic restraint or social defeat stress induce comparable effects on behavior and changes in the expression of neurotrophins in depression‐related brain regions and the resistance of the NETKO mice to the stress‐induced depression‐associated behaviors and biochemical changes highlight the importance of noradrenergic pathways in the maintenance of mood.
Comparison of the effects of isoproterenol administered into the hippocampus, frontal cortex, or amygdala on behavior of rats maintained by differential reinforcement of low response rate
The hippocampus is an important site involved in mediating the antidepressant-like effect of isoproterenol, and a key, although not exclusive, role for this site in the pathophysiology of depression and its pharmacotherapy is suggested.
Venlafaxine treatment stimulates expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor protein in frontal cortex and inhibits long-term potentiation in hippocampus
Antidepressant action may involve stimulation of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). BDNF also regulates long-term potentiation (LTP). We hypothesized that the 5-HT and norepinephrine reuptake
Wirkungsmechanismen der tri- und tetrazyklischen Antidepressiva. Adaptive Veränderung und Neuordnung von Transmittersystemen
Die Bezeichnung tri- und tetrazyklische Antidepressiva charakterisiert auch heute noch eine Substanzklasse mit ahnlichen chemischen Grundstrukturen und ahnlichen pharmakologischen Eigenschaften. Sie
Störungen des Tiefschlafs und psychische Erkrankungen
A reduction of slow-wave sleep has most often been described in patients with depression and addictive disorders, and more recent research implicates slow- wave sleep as an important factor in memory consolidation, especially the contents of declarative memory.
Adjunctive bright light in non‐seasonal major depression: results from clinician‐rated depression scales
Objective:  To investigate the use of bright light therapy as an adjunct treatment to sertraline in non‐seasonal major depression.


Trimipramine, a tricyclic antidepressant exerting atypical actions on the central noradrenergic system.
The results demonstrate that the down-regulation of central noradrenergic sensitivity in the rat is not a prerequisite for clinical efficacy of antidepressants in man.
The Effect of Trimipramine on Sleep in Patients with Major Depressive Disorder
Antidepressants generally inhibit REM sleep. This effect is often considered to be a crucial feature of these drugs. Trimipramine, however, is a tricyclic antidepressant which does not inhibit REM
Trimipramine: Pharmacological reevaluation and comparison with clozapine
It was found that trimipramine did not alter the electrically-induced release of noradrenaline and 5-hydroxytryptamine from slices of the cerebral cortex of the rat, in concentrations of less than 1 microM.
A Review of Trimipramine 30 Years of Clinical Use
Based on experience using trimipramine, a profile of ‘ideal’ patient characteristics has been built up and its effects on sleep architecture are unique and explain some of its unique properties.
Trimipramine—an Atypical Neuroleptic?
The results indicate that trimipramine may have an antipsychotic potency and the improvement of florid psychotic symptoms seems to be markedly higher under trimipramsine than the one reported under placebo.
Action of Trimipramine on Sleep and Pituitary Hormone Secretion
The results further support the effectiveness of trimipramine therapy in normalising a disturbed sleep pattern in depressed patients, and it may be of use in non-depressed insomniacs.
Treatment of primary insomnia with trimipramine: An alternative to benzodiazepine hypnotics?
Discontinuation of trimipramine did not provoke either short- or long-term rebound insomnia in objective and subjective sleep measurements considering mean values of the whole sample, although a subgroup of patients did display total sleep times below baseline values during short- and long- term withdrawal, but generally without a concomitant worsening of sleep quality according to the sleep questionnaire.
Effects of antidepressant agents on the synthesis of brain monoamines
All the established inhibitors of 5-HT, noradrenaline and dopamine uptake were found to inhibit the synthesis of the respective monoamines, presumably by influencing a receptor-mediated feedback mechanism.
Effects of antidepressant drugs on dopamine uptake and metabolism
  • P. Waldmeier
  • Medicine
    The Journal of pharmacy and pharmacology
  • 1982
The acute effects on D A and NA uptake in vivo and on DA metabolism are reported and the effects of some classical antidepressants and more recently developed drugs on aspects of dopaminergic function under identical conditions are compared.
Effects on sleep: a double-blind study comparing trimipramine to imipramine in depressed insomniac patients.
The data demonstrate that antidepressants may vary in their effects on sleep, even though they have similar effects on depression; REM sleep suppression does not necessarily accompany improvement in depression; and reports of improved sleep by patients undergoing antidepressant therapy may not reflect improvement on objective measures of sleep.