Trimethylamine-N-oxide, as a risk factor for atherosclerosis, induces stress in J774A.1 murine macrophages.

Abstract

PURPOSE Trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) is a biomarker for kidney problems. It has also been introduced as a risk factor for atherosclerosis. The classic risk factors for atherosclerosis trigger cellular and humeral immunoreaction in macrophages through induction of heat shock protein expressions and increased levels of GRP94 and HSP70 are associated with… (More)
DOI: 10.1016/j.advms.2017.06.006

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