Trimethoprim: A Review of its Antibacterial Activity, Pharmacokinetics and Therapeutic Use in Urinary Tract Infections

@article{Brogden2012TrimethoprimAR,
  title={Trimethoprim: A Review of its Antibacterial Activity, Pharmacokinetics and Therapeutic Use in Urinary Tract Infections},
  author={Rex N. Brogden and A. A. Carmine and Rennie C. Heel and Trevor M. Speight and Graeme S. Avery},
  journal={Drugs},
  year={2012},
  volume={23},
  pages={405-430}
}
SummarySynopsis: Trimethoprim,1 which has been widely available for several years in combination with sulphamethoxazole as co-trimoxazole, 2 is now available for use alone in the treatment of acute uncomplicated urinary tract infections. Trimethoprim, which is active against a wide range of Gram-positive and Gram-negative aerobic bacteria, is readily absorbed by the oral route and is widely distributed in body fluids and tissues. In therapeutic trials, trimethoprim 200 to 400mg daily has been… 
Trimethoprim in vitro antibacterial activity is not increased by adding sulfamethoxazole for pediatric Escherichia coli urinary tract infection.
TLDR
In children with urinary tract infection in vitro susceptibility to trimethoprim was comparable to that to trimETHoprim/sulfamethoxazole and significantly higher than to sulfameth oxazole.
Co-trimoxazole(Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole)
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Co-trimoxazole has made an important contribution to the treatment of infectious diseases, and will continue to do so for some time to come, as additional clinical experience and newer developments further clarify its optimum role in antimicrobial chemotherapy.
Efficacy and safety properties of Lumefantrine-Trimethoprim-Copper complex in mice
TLDR
The observed modifications in the biochemical indices and the presence of chromosomal aberrations in the organs studied, suggested a selective and functional toxicity of the drug.
The effectiveness of nitrofurantoin, fosfomycin and trimethoprim for the treatment of cystitis in relation to renal function.
TLDR
Renal function should be considered in the clinical decision-making for cystitis treatment, if known, in eGFR ≥60 mL/min treatment with fosfomycin or trimethoprim for uncomplicated Cystitis was associated with more clinical failure than nitrofurantoin, while in eEGFR <60mL/min nitro furantoin wasassociated with moreclinical failure than fosFomycin-trometamol.
Bioavailability of a Combination Preparation of Trimethoprim and Folic Acid
TLDR
This new type of formulation of trimethoprim and folic acid has been developed in order to prevent in long-term use the adverse haematological effects induced by trimethOPrim alone.
Rational Prescribing of Antibacterials in Ambulatory Children
TLDR
Rational antimicrobial treatment of common paediatric bacterial infections such as streptococcal tonsillopharyngitis, acute otitis media, acute sinusitis, bacterial pneumonia, pertussis, Lyme borreliosis (early stage) and lower urinary tract infection is reviewed.
Trimethoprim, Creatinine and Creatinine-Based Equations
TLDR
Evidence of the differential effects of trimethoprim and Sfx on serum creatinine concentrations and GFR and their relevance to clinical practice is focused on, with particular attention to kidney transplantation.
Intrafamilial spreading of Escherichia coli resistant to trimethoprim.
TLDR
The results indicate that resistance to trimethoprim not only spreads in hospitals with intensive use of antibiotics, but also among the families of trimETHoprim-treated outpatients.
Impact of Very Low-Dose Trimethoprim-Sulfamethoxazole on Serum Creatinine after Renal Transplantation: A Retrospective Study.
TLDR
Very low-dose trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole prophylaxis significantly raised serum creatinine reversibly by 6% after renal transplantation.
The Antibiotic Trimethoprim Displays Strong Mutagenic Synergy with 2-Aminopurine
TLDR
An analysis of the mutational spectra of TMP, 2AP, and their combination indicates that together they trigger a response via an alteration in deoxynucleoside triphosphate (dNTP) ratios that neither compound alone can trigger.
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TLDR
It is suggested that trimethoprim alone is efficacious in the treatment of urinary infections and very suitable for long-term control of the disease.
TREATMENT OF SULFONAMIDE‐RESISTANT URINARY TRACT INFECTIONS WITH A COMBINATION OF SULFONAMIDE AND TRIMETHOPRIM
TLDR
It was concluded that combined treatment with sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim is indicated in sulfonamide‐resistant infections as well, and the treatment is significantly more effective than treatment with trimETHoprim alone.
COMPARISON OF TRIMETHOPRIM ALONE WITH TRIMETHOPRIM SULPHAMETHOXAZOLE IN THE TREATMENT OF RESPIRATORY AND URINARY INFECTIONS WITH PARTICULAR REFERENCE TO SELECTION OF TRIMETHOPRIM RESISTANCE
TLDR
Treatment with trimethoprim rarely selected resistant pathogens in the sputum or resistant Enterobacteriacae in the intestine, although the incidence of resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci on the skin increased with both regimens.
Trimethoprim and co-trimoxazole in the treatment of acute urinary tract infections: patient compliance and efficacy.
TLDR
Patient compliance and drug efficacy and side-effects were compared in two groups of patients with symptoms of acute lower urinary tract infections and trimethoprim and co-trimoxazole were of equivalent effectiveness in the control of symptoms.
Efficacy of trimethoprim, sulfamethoxazole and the combination of both in acute urinary tract infection. Clinical and pharmacokinetical studies.
TLDR
Treatment with TMP alone is superior to the combined regimen due to a smaller incidence of side effects; thus, in addition to the combination with SMZ, introduction of T MP alone on the market is recommended.
Trimethoprim in the treatment of acute urinary tract infections in children.
TLDR
It is concluded that trimethoprim is as effective as sulphisoxazole in the treatment of simple acute urinary tract infections of children and recommend it, in the dosage used, as an alternative first-choice drug, especially for patients who have had side effects from sulphonamides or nitrofurantoin.
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TLDR
Patients with bacteriologically diagnosed urinary tract infection were randomly selected for treatment with either 1 g sulphamethizole twice daily, 200 mg trimethoprim once daily, or 410 mg sulphadiazine plus 90 mg trimETHoprim twice daily.
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TLDR
It has been demonstrated that TMP is concentrated in the sputum, and this may account for the efficacy of TMP-SMZ in treating chest infections.
Pharmacokinetic Studies of Co‐Trimoxazole in Man After Single and Repeated Doses
TLDR
The original in vitro findings were confirmed in vivo using experimental septicemias in mice; the CD50 of co-tnimoxazole in these experiments compared very favorably with those of ampicillin, oxytetracycline, penicillin G, and chloramphenicol.
Double-blind Trial to Compare Ampicillin, Cephalexin, Co-trimoxazole, and Trimethoprim in Treatment of Urinary Infection
TLDR
In domiciliary infections and bacteriuria in pregnancy trimethoprim alone proved to be at least as effective as the other three compounds and caused fewer than half the number of side effects.
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