Trichromatic colour vision in New World monkeys

  title={Trichromatic colour vision in New World monkeys},
  author={Gerald H. Jacobs and Maureen Neitz and Jess F. Deegan and Jay Neitz},
TRICHROMATIC colour vision depends on the presence of three types of cone photopigment. Trichromacy is the norm for all Old World monkeys, apes and humans, but in several genera of New World monkeys, colour vision is strikingly polymorphic1. The difference in colour vision between these New and Old World primates results from differing arrangements of the pigment genes on the X chromosome. In Old World primates the three photopigments required for routine trichromatic colour vision are encoded… 
Photopigments and colour vision in New World monkeys from the family Atelidae
To determine whether closely related monkeys share this arrangement, spectral sensitivity functions that allow inferences about cone pigments were measured for 56 monkeys from two other Atelid genera, spider monkeys (Ateles) and woolly monkeys (Lagothrix).
The Genetic and Evolutionary Drives behind Primate Color Vision
The mechanism leading to trichromacy, with one exception, is based on a single polymorphic LWS gene, from which different allelic variants encode pigments with differing spectral peaks.
Evolution of Red-green Visual Pigment Genes and Color Vision of New World Monkeys
The phylogenetic analysis indicated that duplications of the green genes occurred in owl monkey lineage and were independent from that in the howler monkey, the only known NW monkey having red and green genes on separate loci.
Cone pigment variations in four genera of new world monkeys
Visual responses of ganglion cells of a New‐World primate, the capuchin monkey, Cebus apella
This strong physiological homology is consistent with a common origin of trichromacy in New‐ and Old‐World monkeys; in the New‐World primate the presence of two pigments in the middle‐to‐long wavelength range permits full expression of the retinal mechanisms oftrichromatic vision.
Ecology and evolution of primate colour vision INVITED REVIEW
Comparative studies of mammalian eyes indicate that primates are the only placental mammals that have in their retina a pre-existing neural machinery capable of utilising the signals of an additional spectral type of cone, and the failure of non-primate placental mammal mammals to evolve trichromacy can be explained by constraints imposed on the wiring of retinal neurones.
Progress toward understanding the evolution of primate color vision
An examination of the patterns of color vision detected in contemporary primates and of the pigments and opsin genes that make color vision possible raises the possibility that two cone classes were lost during the early evolution of mammals.
Recent evolution of uniform trichromacy in a New World monkey
Color vision of ancestral organisms of higher primates.
The fact that the red/green opsin gene has survived the long nocturnal stage of mammalian evolution and that it is under strong purifying selection in organisms that live in dark environments suggests that this gene has another important function in addition to color vision, probably the control of circadian rhythms.


Visual Pigments and Colour Vision in Primates
A number of questions still remain concerning the number and spectral location of visual pigments in man, both in normal observers and in anomalous trichromats.
Inheritance of color vision in a New World monkey (Saimiri sciureus).
  • G. H. Jacobs, J. Neitz
  • Biology
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
  • 1987
The results indicate that the inheritance of color vision in the squirrel monkey can be explained by assuming that the three middle- to long-wavelength cone pigments are specified by three alleles at a single locus on the X chromosome.
Numbers and ratios of visual pigment genes for normal red-green color vision
It is revealed that many men with normal color vision have more pigment genes on the X chromosome than had previously been suggested and that many had more than one long-wave pigment gene.
  • G. H. Jacobs
  • Biology
    Biological reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
  • 1993
This review has evaluated the proposition that relatively few mammalian species have a capacity for colour vision in mammals in the light of recent research on colour vision and its mechanisms in mammals and concluded that the baseline mammalian colour vision is argued to be dichromacy.
Molecular genetics of human color vision: the genes encoding blue, green, and red pigments.
The isolation and sequencing of genomic and complementary DNA clones that encode the apoproteins of these three pigments are described and the deduced amino acid sequences show 41 +/- 1 percent identity with rhodopsin.
Spectral tuning of pigments underlying red-green color vision.
Comparisons of the deduced amino acid sequences suggest that three amino acid substitutions produce the approximately 30-nanometer difference in spectral peaks of the pigments underlying human red-green color vision, and red shifts of specific magnitudes are produced by replacement of nonpolar with hydroxyl-bearing amino acids at each of the three critical positions.
The polymorphic photopigments of the marmoset: spectral tuning and genetic basis.
Within a family group of monkeys, it is found that a restriction site polymorphism in the photopigment gene segregates in a way that is consistent with the single X‐linked gene hypothesis previously proposed on the basis of the photOPigment types present in male and female marmosets.
Sequence divergence and copy number of the middle- and long-wave photopigment genes in old world monkeys
Restriction digests of genomic DNA showed that the size of this intron does not differ across the six species of Old World monkeys examined, and the role of amino acid substitutions in the spectral tuning of these photopigments is discussed.