Trial 1 Versus Trial 2 of the Test of Memory Malingering: Evaluating Accuracy Without a “Gold Standard”

  title={Trial 1 Versus Trial 2 of the Test of Memory Malingering: Evaluating Accuracy Without a “Gold Standard”},
  author={D. Mossman and Dustin B Wygant and R. Gervais and K. Hart},
  journal={Psychological Assessment},
This study examines the accuracy of the Test of Memory Malingering (TOMM), a frequently administered measure for evaluating effort during neurocognitive testing. In the last few years, several authors have suggested that the initial recognition trial of the TOMM (Trial 1) might be a more useful index for detecting feigned or exaggerated impairment than Trial 2, which is the source for inference recommended by the original instruction manual (Tombaugh, 1996). We used latent class modeling (LCM… Expand
Further Validation of the Test of Memory Malingering (TOMM) Trial 1 Performance Validity Index: Examination of False Positives and Convergent Validity
Assessment of performance validity is an essential part of a neuropsychological evaluation, with the inclusion of two or more performance validity tests (PVTs) becoming routine practice. ConsideringExpand
Why Children Fail the Test of Memory Malingering: Review of False Positive Performance in Pediatric Studies
RationaleThe Test of Memory Malingering (TOMM) is a commonly utilized performance validity test currently recommended for pediatric use with children as young as 5 years of age. Yet, a small sampleExpand
When 10 is enough: Errors on the first 10 items of the Test of Memory Malingering (TOMMe10) and administration time predict freestanding performance validity tests (PVTs) and underperformance on memory measures
  • J. Denning
  • Psychology, Medicine
  • Applied neuropsychology. Adult
  • 2019
Abstract It is critical that we develop more efficient performance validity tests (PVTs). A shorter version of the Test of Memory Malingering (TOMM) that utilizes errors on the first 10 itemsExpand
Validation of the Advanced Clinical Solutions Word Choice Test (WCT) in a Mixed Clinical Sample: Establishing Classification Accuracy, Sensitivity/Specificity, and Cutoff Scores
Successful performance on the WCT appeared to rely more heavily on cognitive processes unrelated to performance validity, with a higher sensitivity/specificity trade-off among those with CI. Expand
A pilot study on the adequacy of the TOMM in detecting invalid performance in patients with substance use disorders
There was a high performance on the TOMM among the SUD participants of the study despite their cognitive impairment, indicating adequate effort in their neuropsychological test performance, and these findings suggest that the probability of showing invalid Neuropsychological performance among SUD compensation seeking patients is much lower than what has been found in other populations. Expand
Performance Validity, Neurocognitive Disorder, and Post-concussion Symptom Reporting in Service Members with a History of Mild Traumatic Brain Injury
PVT performance is significantly and meaningfully related to overall neuropsychological outcome and the number of participants with valid data meeting cognitive testing criteria for neurocognitive disorder or postconcussional syndrome decreased dramatically. Expand
The Case for Assessing for Negative Response Bias, Not Malingering
ABSTRACT Assessment of response style is a vital component of forensic assessment. However, the focus on malingering in the literature and test offerings has predictable and negative consequences:Expand


Combining the Test of Memory Malingering Trial 1 With Behavioral Responses Improves the Detection of Effort Test Failure
  • J. Denning
  • Medicine, Psychology
  • Applied neuropsychology. Adult
  • 2014
Examples are provided demonstrating that at a given TOMM score, with an increase in “point and name” responses, there is an incremental increase in the probability of failing the Medical Symptom Validity Test (MSVT). Expand
Cross-Validation of Supplemental Test of Memory Malingering Scores as Performance Validity Measures
Assessment of the validity of neuropsychological test data has become an ensconced aspect of the assessment process. Among the more popular free-standing performance validity measures (PVMs) is theExpand
Estimating the accuracy of neurocognitive effort measures in the absence of a "gold standard".
Though LCM methods have limitations, this study suggests that they offer an approach to SVT evaluation that avoids methodological pitfalls of known-group research designs while retaining ecological validity that is absent in simulation studies. Expand
Efficacy of test of memory malingering Trial 1, Trial 2, the Retention Trial, and the Albany Consistency Index in a criterion group forensic neuropsychological sample.
  • R. Schroeder, W. Buddin, +5 authors L. Baade
  • Psychology, Medicine
  • Archives of clinical neuropsychology : the official journal of the National Academy of Neuropsychologists
  • 2013
This study compares Trial 1, Trial 2, the Retention Trial, and the newly created Albany Consistency Index in a criterion group forensic neuropsychological sample to lend support for the newlycreated indices and cutoff scores. Expand
The Albany Consistency Index for the Test of Memory Malingering.
An index of response consistency across three trials of the TOMM was developed, denoted the Albany Consistency Index (ACI), which was a more sensitive indicator of suboptimal effort than traditional TOMM interpretive guidelines. Expand
The efficiency and accuracy of the Test of Memory Malingering trial 1, errors on the first 10 items of the test of memory malingering, and five embedded measures in predicting invalid test performance.
  • J. Denning
  • Medicine
  • Archives of clinical neuropsychology : the official journal of the National Academy of Neuropsychologists
  • 2012
TOMM1 and TOMMe10 provide evidence of greater sensitivity to invalid test performance compared with the standard TOMM administration and the use of regression improved the accuracy of the five embedded cognitive measures. Expand
TOMM Trial 1 as a performance validity indicator in a criminal forensic sample
Results support use of TOMM1 in a criminal forensic setting where accuracy, shorter evaluation times, and more efficient use of resources are often critical in informing legal decision-making. Expand
A comparison of WMT, CARB, and TOMM failure rates in non-head injury disability claimants.
Tests of recognition memory using digits, pictorial stimuli or verbal stimuli, all of which are objectively extremely easy tasks, resulted in widely different failure rates, suggesting that, while these tests may be highly specific, they vary substantially in their sensitivity to response bias. Expand
Development and Validation of the Validity Indicator Profile
The Validity Indicator Profile (VIP; Frederick, 1997) is a two-alternative forced choice (2AFC) procedure intended to identify when the results of cognitive and neuropsychological testing may beExpand
A Bayesian approach to mixed group validation of performance validity tests.
A Bayesian approach to mixed group validation (MGV) is described that addresses and avoids limitations of typical implementations of MGV and may prove helpful in evaluating the accuracy of many assessment tools used in clinical contexts and psycholegal determinations. Expand