The care and treatment of patients with known increased intracranial pressure (ICP) is one of the most challenging, important and many times difficult task a neuroscience nurse faces in the critical care setting today. Advances in technology have allowed for more precise ways of measuring ICP and with these advances, nursing care has become increasingly complex requiring quick, effective decision making and a high level of expertise for the nurse caring for these patients. The research in this area remains relatively new and the unanswered questions still tend to outweigh the conclusive findings. The research has really just begun, but what research has been done provides us with useful information in helping to provide a plan of care that can be implemented with relative success. The purpose is to review the trends in the care and treatment of patients with increased ICP over the past five years and evaluate their effectiveness based on the literature reviewed. It will also provide a basic review of the relevant physiological principles of increased ICP as related to the above case and treatment.