Trends in puberty timing in humans and environmental modifiers

@article{Toppari2010TrendsIP,
  title={Trends in puberty timing in humans and environmental modifiers},
  author={Jorma Toppari and Anders Juul},
  journal={Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology},
  year={2010},
  volume={324},
  pages={39-44}
}
  • J. Toppari, A. Juul
  • Published 5 August 2010
  • Biology
  • Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
Normal Variation in Pubertal Timing: Genetic Determinants in Relation to Growth and Adiposity.
TLDR
Genome-wide association and epidemiological studies on the normal variation in pubertal timing in relation to growth and adiposity suggest the existence of a pathway of early infancy weight gain, increased height gain in childhood, earlier puberal timing and increased adiposity in adulthood.
Endocrine Disruptors and Puberty Disorders from Mice to Men (and Women)
TLDR
A sound risk analysis needs an interdisciplinary integration between human medicine and experimental toxicology, as the spectrum of ED modes of action is going to include new mechanisms and targets, such as kisspeptins and N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors.
Male pubertal development: are endocrine-disrupting compounds shifting the norms?
TLDR
The normal process of puberty in males is reviewed and human data that suggest potential perturbations in pubertal onset and tempo with early-life exposures to EDCs are summarized.
The Influence of Endocrine Disruptors on Male Pubertal Timing
TLDR
In conclusion, animal and human data confirm perturbations in pubertal onset and attainment of late Pubertal stages with early-life exposures to EDCs.
Endocrine-Disrupting Compounds and Pubertal Development: The Effects of Environmental Compounds on the Timing of Puberty in Humans
TLDR
Animal and human data confirm perturbations in pubertal onset, tempo, and age of menarche with early-life exposures to EDCs.
Perinatal environmental exposures affect mammary development, function, and cancer risk in adulthood.
TLDR
Current research needs include increased attention to and recording of prenatal and neonatal environmental exposures, testing of marketed chemicals for effects on the mammary gland, and understanding of the Mammary gland-specific mechanisms that are altered by chemicals.
Pros and cons of GnRHa treatment for early puberty in girls
TLDR
GnRHa therapy is effective in improving adult height in patients who present with classic central precocious puberty (at <8 years old), without causing adverse effects on body composition, BMD and reproductive function, but its benefits in patients with atypical forms of early puberty not driven by luteinising hormone are not well defined.
The Role of Pediatric Nutrition as a Modifiable Risk Factor for Precocious Puberty
TLDR
An increase in knowledge on the mechanism whereby nutrients may influence puberty will be useful in providing adequate nutritional recommendations to prevent PP and related complications, and an overview on early-life and childhood nutrition is presented.
Genetics of Puberty
TLDR
This chapter will focus on the physiology of puberty, highlighting the role of various genetic factors, and their interplay with hormonal, metabolic, and other environmental factors.
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References

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TLDR
These observations urge further study of the onset of puberty as a possible sensitive and early marker of the interactions between environmental conditions and genetic susceptibility that can influence physiological and pathological processes.
Forty Years Trends in Timing of Pubertal Growth Spurt in 157,000 Danish School Children
TLDR
The finding of declining age at OGS and at PHV indicates a secular trend towards earlier sexual maturation of Danish children born between 1930 and 1969, which is an important indicator of the general reproductive health in a population.
Blood lead concentration and delayed puberty in girls.
TLDR
It is suggested that environmental exposure to lead may delay growth and pubertal development in girls, although confirmation is warranted in prospective studies.
Association of Blood Lead Levels with Onset of Puberty in Russian Boys
TLDR
Relatively low environmental blood lead levels were associated with decreased growth and differences in pubertal onset in periadolescent Russian boys.
Examination of US Puberty-Timing Data from 1940 to 1994 for Secular Trends: Panel Findings
TLDR
It is concluded that altered puberty timing should be considered an adverse effect, although the magnitude of change considered adverse was not assessed and additional analyses of existing puberty-timing data are recommended to examine secular trends and trends in the temporal sequence of pubertal events.
Age at Puberty and the Emerging Obesity Epidemic
TLDR
Irrespective of level of BMI at age seven, there was a downward trend in the age at attaining puberty in both boys and girls, which suggests that the obesity epidemic is not solely responsible for the trend.
Pubertal development in Danish children: comparison of recent European and US data.
TLDR
It is believed it is crucial to monitor the pubertal development closely in Denmark in the coming decades as obesity certainly plays a role in the timing of puberty, but the marked differences between Denmark and USA cannot be attributed exclusively to differences in BMI.
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