Blood Pressure Reduction Combining Baroreflex Restoration for Stroke Prevention in Hypertension in Rats
OBJECTIVE The study's objective was to determine population trends in blood pressure, hypertension prevalence, hypertension control, and stroke mortality. METHODS We performed population-based surveys of 2906 to 5630 adults from 1980 to 1982, 1985 to 1987, 1990 to 1992, 1995 to 1997, and 2000 to 2002, and stroke mortality from 1980 to 2002, in the Minneapolis/St Paul, Minn metropolitan area (2.63 million population according to the 2000 census). Randomly selected resident adults aged 25 to 74 years (n = 21773) were each screened once. The main outcome measures were standardized measures of blood pressure, treatment and control of hypertension, and stroke mortality rates. RESULTS The mean systolic blood pressure adjusted for age decreased in men (-1.5 mm Hg [95% confidence interval -0.3 to -2.7], P <.01) and women (-1.8 mm Hg [95% confidence interval -0.5 to -3.0], P <.001) from 1980 to 1982 and 2000 to 2002. The mean diastolic blood pressure was unchanged for men (0 mm Hg) and women (-0.4 mm Hg, not significant). The proportion of the population taking antihypertensive medications decreased in the 1990s but returned to 1980s levels from 2000 to 2002. The use of other methods to decrease blood pressure (diet, exercise, and weight loss) peaked in the 1990 to 1992 survey and then decreased. Proportions of hypertensive patients in the aware, treated, and/or controlled categories leveled in the 1980s and 1990s, but improved substantially from 1995 to 1997 and 2000 to 2002 with blood pressure controlled at the less than 140 and/or 90 mm Hg criteria in 44% of the men and 55% of the women. Population mortality trends for stroke paralleled those for hypertension control. CONCLUSIONS Population data beginning in 1980 to 1982 from the Minnesota Heart Survey indicate a leveling in the detection and control of hypertension in the 1990s followed by improvement from 2000 to 2002.