Trends in Tramadol: Pharmacology, Metabolism, and Misuse.

@article{Miotto2017TrendsIT,
  title={Trends in Tramadol: Pharmacology, Metabolism, and Misuse.},
  author={Karen Miotto and Arthur K. Cho and Mohamed A. Khalil and Kirsten Blanco and Jun D Sasaki and Richard Rawson},
  journal={Anesthesia \& Analgesia},
  year={2017}
}
Tramadol is a unique analgesic medication, available in variety of formulations, with both monoaminergic reuptake inhibitory and opioid receptor agonist activity increasingly prescribed worldwide as an alternative for high-affinity opioid medication in the treatment of acute and chronic pain. It is a prodrug that is metabolized by cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 to its more potent opioid analgesic metabolites, particularly the O-demethylation product M1. The opioid analgesic… 

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