This special report includes newspaper reports and UNAIDS surveillance data to report on the nature and extent of HIV/AIDS prevalence, globally and in the US, where advanced treatment is available and offers hope. On February 3, 1998, the Washington Post reported that new treatments were contributing to the decline in AIDS cases. New York City, which has 16% of this country's AIDS cases, experienced a 48% decline in AIDS mortality in 1997. The United Press International, on January 9, 1998, reported that California AIDS mortality declined 60% and the credit goes to new drug therapies and, to a lesser extent, safer sex practices. AIDS mortality declines were also reported in Canada. The population in the US most affected by HIV/AIDS are Blacks, who comprise 43% of all AIDS cases and under 25% of total population. The White, non-Hispanic population comprise 73% of total population, but have only 36% of AIDS cases. The number of AIDS cases declined in the White population, but increased in the Black population. It is posited that the reason for more cases among Blacks is lack of accessibility to new treatments. Global conditions reveal a total of 30.6 million AIDS cases, of which 20.8 million are in sub-Saharan Africa. 4.0 million were newly infected in sub-Saharan Africa, compared to 1.3 million in South and Southeast Asia. Total new global cases are an estimated 5.8 million, of which 5.3 million are in developing countries. There is an urgent need to address the spread of AIDS in Africa. Governments need to establish priorities, find ways to reduce costs of effective treatment, and promote prevention.