Postoperative radiotherapy (PRT) is widely advocated for patients with squamous cell carcinomas of the head and neck that are considered to be at high risk of recurrence after surgical resection. The aims of this study were to evaluate the treatment outcomes of PRT for patients with laryngeal carcinoma and to identify the value of several prognostic factors. We reviewed the records of 256 patients treated for laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma between January 1993 and December 2005. Disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Log-rank test was employed to identify significant prognostic factors for DFS and OS. The Cox proportional hazards model was applied to identify covariates significantly associated with the aforementioned endpoints. Our results showed the 3-, 5-, and 10-year DFS for all patients were 69.9%, 59.5%, and 34.9%, respectively. The 3-, 5-, and 10-year OS rates were 80.8%, 68.6%, and 38.8%, respectively. Significant prognostic factors for both DFS and OS on univariate analysis were grade, primary site, T stage, N stage, overall stage, lymph node metastasis, overall treatment times of radiation, the interval between surgery and radiotherapy, and radiotherapy equipment. Favorable prognostic factors for both DFS and OS on multivariate analysis were lower overall stage, no cervical lymph node metastasis, and using 60Co as radiotherapy equipment. In conclusion, our data suggest that lower overall stage, no cervical lymph node metastasis, and using 60Co as radiotherapy equipment are favorable prognostic factors for DFS and OS and that reducing the overall treatment times of radiation to 6 weeks or less and the interval between surgery and radiotherapy to less than 3 weeks are simple measures to remarkably improve treatment outcome.