Treatment options for visceral leishmaniasis

@article{denBoer2006TreatmentOF,
  title={Treatment options for visceral leishmaniasis},
  author={Margriet den Boer and Robert N. Davidson},
  journal={Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy},
  year={2006},
  volume={4},
  pages={187 - 197}
}
This review summarizes the current developments in therapy for visceral leishmaniasis. With the recent introduction of new drugs, the main limits in reducing deaths from visceral leishmaniasis are difficulty in diagnosis in the field and health inequality – patients lack of access to treatment. No new drugs are currently in the early stages of development. There are good reasons for the use of combination therapy; to prevent further development of resistance against the limited therapeutic… 
Visceral leishmaniasis: what are the needs for diagnosis, treatment and control?
TLDR
Millefosine, paromomycin and liposomal amphotericin B are gradually replacing pentavalent antimonials and conventional amphoteric in B as the preferred treatments in some regions, but in other areas these drugs are still being evaluated in both mono- and combination therapies.
Current diagnosis and treatment of visceral
TLDR
This article critically addresses the currently available diagnostic and treatment regimens for the control of VL and recommends combination therapy to increase treatment efficacy and prevent the development of resistance.
Current diagnosis and treatment of visceral leishmaniasis
TLDR
This article critically addresses the currently available diagnostic and treatment regimens for the control of VL and offers more choices for monotherapy and combination therapy for VL.
Drug regimens for visceral leishmaniasis in Mediterranean countries
TLDR
It is shown that antimony resistance is not an emerging problem in the Mediterranean, and VL is now treated differently in the region, basically through three approaches: in Northern Africa and in part of the Middle East, pentavalent antimony is still the mainstay for therapy, with no alternative drug options for treating relapses.
Therapy of vector-borne protozoan infections in nonendemic settings
TLDR
Progress in the management of leishmaniasis and trypanosomiasis has also been substantial and includes introduction of new drugs into clinical practice, combinations of existing drugs, or new laboratory tools for treatment monitoring.
Pentamidine as secondary prophylaxis for visceral leishmaniasis in the immunocompromised host: report of four cases
TLDR
Large trials are recommended to investigate the efficacy of pentamidine over other agents in preventing relapse of VL in the immunocompromised patient.
Visceral leishmaniasis after renal transplantation: report of 4 cases in northeastern Brazil
TLDR
Visceral leishmaniasis is a well recognized opportunistic infection in immunosuppressed patients, which may cause febrile illness in transplanted patients living in endemic areas.
Leishmanicidal activity of Artemisinin against cutaneous Leishmaniasis, in Vitro
TLDR
The findings approved the leishmanicidal efficacy of Artemisinin against the of L. tropica and can be further studied to screen its effectiveness in vivo for exploring a safer herbal drug for treatment of cutaneous leish maniasis.
...
1
2
3
4
5
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 113 REFERENCES
Visceral Leishmaniasis Treatment, Italy
TLDR
First-line drug treatment was recorded in 573 immunocompetent patients with visceral leishmaniasis in Italy in the past 12 years, a response to both disease reemergence and increasing antimonial failure.
Progress in the treatment of a neglected infectious disease: visceral leishmaniasis
  • H. Murray
  • Medicine
    Expert review of anti-infective therapy
  • 2004
TLDR
Renewed interest in visceral leishmaniasis and numerous successful treatment trials have combined to turn a therapeutic corner in the past 5 years, yielding new alternatives to conventional pentavalent antimony.
Oral miltefosine for leishmaniasis in immunocompromised patients: compassionate use in 39 patients with HIV infection.
TLDR
Repeated responses after relapse and tolerability of long courses of treatment indicate the potential for development of optimized dosage schemes.
Advances in the treatment of leishmaniasis
TLDR
Generic stibogluconate enables the cost effective treatment of all forms of leishmaniasis as it remains the most important antileishmanial drug in most parts of the world.
Clinical status of agents being developed for leishmaniasis
  • J. Berman
  • Medicine
    Expert opinion on investigational drugs
  • 2005
TLDR
The most likely replacements for present therapy are oral miltefosine for many of the visceral and cutaneous syndromes, intramuscular paromomycin for visceral disease and topical parommycin for some forms of cutaneous disease.
HIV and the transmission of Leishmania
TLDR
The co-infection of Leishmania/HIV has led not only to marked increases in the sandfly transmission of the parasites from immunodepressed individuals directly to other humans but also, probably, to artificial transmission between immunODepressed intravenous-drug users, as the result of needle sharing.
Kala-azar--progress against a neglected disease.
  • H. Murray
  • Medicine
    The New England journal of medicine
  • 2002
TLDR
The report by Sundar and colleagues in this issue of the Journal 1 offers a current perspective on kala-azar and recent advances in treatment and prevention.
Single-dose liposomal amphotericin B in the treatment of visceral leishmaniasis in India: a multicenter study.
TLDR
Single-dose L-AmB (7.5 mg/kg) treatment is safe and effective, and it may be used for the mass treatment of VL in India.
...
1
2
3
4
5
...