Treatment of restless legs syndrome: An evidence‐based review and implications for clinical practice

  title={Treatment of restless legs syndrome: An evidence‐based review and implications for clinical practice},
  author={Claudia Trenkwalder and W. Hening and Pasquale Montagna and Wolfgang Hermann Oertel and Richard P. Allen and Arthur S. Walters and Jo{\~a}o Costa and Karin Stiasny‐Kolster and Cristina Sampaio},
  journal={Movement Disorders},
Only in the last three decades, the restless legs syndrome (RLS) has been examined in randomized controlled trials. The Movement Disorder Society (MDS) commissioned a task force to perform an evidence‐based review of the medical literature on treatment modalities used to manage patients with RLS. The task force performed a search of the published literature using electronic databases. The therapeutic efficacy of each drug was classified as being either efficacious, likely efficacious… 


The author’s research focused on the development of a novel approach to the management of chronic pain and its applications in the context of amputees with learning disabilities.

Treatment of restless legs syndrome.

An update on the treatment of Restless Legs Syndrome/Willis-Ekbom Disease: prospects and challenges

This review provides an update regarding the treatment of RLS/WED with particular attention to future challenges for its management, and reviewed a large variety of treatments studied in clinical trials and supported by the most updated guidelines.

Risk for Femoral Fractures in Parkinson’s Disease Patients with and without Severe Functional Impairment

The findings confirm the increased risk of femoral fractures in patients with idiopathic PD, which is particularly high in male PD patients and in patients without severe functional impairment.

Lisuride Reduces Involuntary Periodic Leg Movements in Spinocerebellar Ataxia Type 2 Patients

The study suggests the efficacy of dopamine agonist therapy in the treatment of PLMs in SCA2, improving various subjective sleep complaints, and serves to promote the adequate management of sleep-related disorders inSCA2.

Restless Legs Syndrome Restless legs syndrome

Dopamine agonists, especially pramipexole and ropinirole, are particularly useful in the treatment of RLS, and pharmacological treatment should however be limited to those patients who suffer from clinically relevant RLS with impaired sleep quality or quality of life.

Restless legs syndrome.

Sleep-related movement disorders

Clinical and neurophysiological assessments are required to detect the presence of nocturnal movement complaints and patients reporting poor sleep due to these abnormal movements should undergo non-pharmacological or pharmacological treatments.

The Use of Iron in the Treatment of Restless Legs Syndrome

Intravenous (IV) iron supplementation combined with sleep hygiene counseling, is a potential first-line treatment option for patients with Restless Legs Syndrome.

Understanding the Potential Use of Herbs in Restless Legs Syndrome

Clinical features may include a family history of RLS, response to dopaminergic therapy, and periodic limb movements (Merlino et al 2007b).



A Randomized, Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Trial of Iron in Restless Legs Syndrome

Iron sulfate does not appear to be an effective empiric treatment for restless legs syndrome and should not be considered as a treatment for insomnia.

Gabapentin Versus Levodopa for the Treatment of Restless Legs Syndrome in Hemodialysis Patients: An Open‐Label Study

The results suggested that gabapentin is an effective drug for the management of RLS in hemodialysis patients, and was significantly superior to levodopa for sleep quality, sleep latency, and sleep disturbance.

Zolpidem in Restless Legs Syndrome

Gabapentin versus Ropinirole in the Treatment of Idiopathic Restless Legs Syndrome

It is concluded that gabapentin and ropinirole provide a similarly well-tolerated and effective treatment of PLMS and sensorimotor symptoms in patients with idiopathic RLS.

Pergolide: treatment of choice in restless legs syndrome (RLS) and nocturnal myoclonus syndrome (NMS). A double-blind randomized crossover trial of pergolide versus L-Dopa

The dopamine agonist Pergolide is superior to L-Dopa in the treatment of RLS and NMS in patients with idiopathic restless legs syndrome.

Treatment of idiopathic restless legs syndrome (RLS) with slow-release valproic acid compared with slow-release levodopa/benserazid

It is concluded that slow-release VPA provides a treatment alternative for RLS and decrease of intensity and duration of RLS symptoms were more pronounced with VPA than with LD.

Magnesium therapy for periodic leg movements-related insomnia and restless legs syndrome: an open pilot study.

It is indicated that magnesium treatment may be a useful alternative therapy in patients with mild or moderate RLS-or PLMS-related insomnia and further investigations regarding the role of magnesium in the pathophysiology of RLS and placebo-controlled studies need to be performed.

Cabergoline compared to levodopa in the treatment of patients with severe restless legs syndrome: Results from a multi‐center, randomized, active controlled trial

This first large‐scale double‐blind, randomly assigned study in RLS showed superior efficacy of cabergoline versus levodopa after a 30‐week long‐term therapy and Tolerability was found more favorable withlevodopa than with Cabergoline.

L-dopa therapy of uremic and idiopathic restless legs syndrome: a double-blind, crossover trial.

It is concluded that L-dopa 100-200 mg proved to be effective in idiopathic RLS and for the first time under controlled conditions in uremic R LS without any severe side effects.

The Treatment of the Restless Legs Syndrome with Clonazepam: A Prospective Controlled Study

Clonazepam was not shown to be significantly more effective than placebo in the treatment of RLS and patients assigned a score daily to the degree of discomfort experienced in the previous 24 hours.