Lysosomal rupture induced by structurally distinct chitosans either promotes a type 1 IFN response or activates the inflammasome in macrophages.
Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common form of arthritis and one of the leading causes of disability worldwide. The incidence of OA increases with age, and as longevity increases, it will cause a significant socioeconomic burden. No disease-modifying therapy is available for OA. Recent research has highlighted the role of inflammation in the progression of OA. Interleukin-1 appears to have a significant role in disease progression. Since the interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra) anakinra has been used successfully in the treatment of the inflammation and bone destruction of rheumatoid arthritis, some have suggested that it may be able to retard the disease progression of OA. This article reviews the data on the use of anakinra in OA treatment.