Treatment of organophosphate poisoning. Experience of nerve agents and acute pesticide poisoning on the effects of oximes

@article{BalaliMood1998TreatmentOO,
  title={Treatment of organophosphate poisoning. Experience of nerve agents and acute pesticide poisoning on the effects of oximes},
  author={Mahdi Balali-Mood and M. Shariat},
  journal={Journal of Physiology-Paris},
  year={1998},
  volume={92},
  pages={375-378}
}

Unequal Efficacy of Pyridinium Oximes in Acute Organophosphate Poisoning

According to the available literature, the oximes LüH-6 and TMB-4, although relatively toxic, are the most potent to induce reactivation of AChE inhibited by the majority of organophosphorus pesticides, while an oxime HLö-7 seems to be an efficient reactivator of A cholinesterase inhibited by any of the four organoph phosphate warfare agents.

Pharmacological agents in the prophylaxis/treatment of organophosphorous pesticide intoxication.

Since respiratory failure is the major reason for mortality, artificial respiration, careful monitoring, appropriate treatment and early recognition of OP pesticide poisoning may decrease the mortality rate among these patients.

Recent Advances in the Treatment of Organophosphorous Poisonings

Investigations have revealed that intravenous infusion of sodium bicarbonate to produce mild to moderate alkalinization is effective and intravenous magnesium sulfate decreased hospitalization duration and improved outcomes in patients with organophosphorous poisoning.

History of the Use and Epidemiology of Organophosphorus Poisoning

Organophosphorus (OP) compounds are organic derivatives of phosphorus that have largely been used as pesticides and nerve agents. Tetraethylpyrophosphate was synthesized in 1854 as the first OP

Clinical Management of Organophosphorus Nerve Agents’ Poisonings

Although atropine and different types of oximes are the main antidotes, there are also some adjuvant treatments for NA intoxication including magnesium sulfate, sodium bicarbonate, gacyclidine, benactyzine, tezampanel, hemoperfusion, antioxidants, and bioscavengers.

Advances in toxicology and medical treatment of chemical warfare nerve agents

The clinical manifestations are similar to OP pesticides poisoning, but with more severity and fatalities, and the management should be started as soon as possible.

Pyridinium oximes in the treatment of poisoning with organophosphorus compounds

  • M. Jokanović
  • Biology, Medicine
    Handbook of Toxicology of Chemical Warfare Agents
  • 2020

REVIEW ARTICLE: RECENT ADVANCES IN TREATMENT OF ACUTE ORGANOPHOSPHOROUS NERVE AGENTS POISONING

Sodium bicarbonate, Magnesium sulfate and the antioxidants should be added to the standard treatment of OP poisonings, it is concluded.

Neurotoxic disorders of organophosphorus compounds and their managements.

Recent advances on treatment of organophosphorus pesticides poisoning revealed that blood alkalinization with sodium bicarbonate and also magnesium sulfate as adjunctive therapies are promising.
...

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Treatment consists of reduction of exposure by decontamination, induction of vomiting or gastric lavage; pharmacological treatment with atropine and oximes (pralidoxime and obidoxime); and supportive treatment with artificial respiration and centrally acting drugs such as diazepam.

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An assay that is twice as precise as the previous version and is suited for use in a routine laboratory with a moderate-quality spectrophotometer is presented, to complement plasma cholinesterase in the investigation of exposure to organophosphates.

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Prevention of potentially toxic organosphosphate exposure, particularly amongst employees in industries manufacturing or using the compounds and in the most susceptible groups of the population, such as the young and the elderly, should be sought wherever possible.