Treatment of cutaneous viral warts in children: A review

  title={Treatment of cutaneous viral warts in children: A review},
  author={Karina Ruth Soenjoyo and Brandon Wen Bing Chua and Lynette Wei Yi Wee and Mark Jean Aan Koh and Seng Bin Ang},
  journal={Dermatologic Therapy},
Viral warts or verruca are very common skin infections in children. Although benign, lesions can be extensive, painful, bleed, or lead to cosmetic disfigurement. Although spontaneous resolution can occur, parents often bring their children for treatment, especially when they are symptomatic. Many publications have assessed the efficacy and safety of treatment of warts in adults. However, treatment in children can be challenging due to their immune responses and lower threshold for pain. We… 

Serum level of interleukin‐22 in patients with cutaneous warts: A case‐control study

It has been clarified that T‐helper (Th) 1 cytokines (interleukin (IL)‐2, interferon‐γ, and tumor necrosis factor‐a) and IL‐17 are involved in HPV clearance.

Aspects of Antiviral Strategies Based on Different Phototherapy Approaches: Hit by the Light

The aim of this review was to highlight the potential of PT to combat viral infections by summarizing current progress in photodynamic, photothermal, and photoacoustic approaches.

Sequential Use of CO2 Laser Prior to Nd:YAG and Dye Laser in the Management of Non-Facial Warts: A Retrospective Study

Using a vascular laser following a CO2 superficial ablation of warts may help reduce the risk of scarring and decrease the incidence of relapses for lesions resistant to traditional therapies.

Intralesional purified protein derivative versus zinc sulfate 2% in the treatment of pediatric warts: Clinical and dermoscopic evaluation

This research presents a new approach to intralesional immunotherapy using different types of antigens to treat warts in children, which has shown promise in both preventing and treating warts.

Wratten/verrucae vulgares

Wratten zijn kleine goedaardige tumoren van de huid, huidkleurig tot geelgrijs met een bloemkoolachtig aspect. De grootte varieert van enkele millimeters tot conglomeraten van enkele centimeters.

Use of Topical Nitric–Zinc Complex Solution to Treat Palmoplantar and Periungual Warts in a Pediatric Population

Nitric–zinc complex solution (NZCS) was an effective treatment of warts in this pediatric population of immunocompetent children and adolescents, and the painlessness, simplicity, and twice-monthly dosing regimen of this treatment represents an advantage over standard approaches.

Paediatric Cutaneous Warts and Verrucae: An Update

  • Ivan Bristow
  • Medicine
    International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
  • 2022
Systematic reviews and studies conducted over the last decade have demonstrated little evidence of innovation or effective improvements in treatment of recalcitrant lesions, however, newer modalities such as immunotherapy and hyperthermia using microwave treatment may hold promise in improving the treatment of these common and therapeutically frustrating lesions.



Squaric acid immunotherapy for warts in children.

SADBE topical immunotherapy is a safe, effective option for home therapy of warts in children and correlated with plantar distribution, wart duration under 2 years, and first-line therapy with SADBE.

Management of cutaneous viral warts

High quality evidence based studies are lacking in this discipline owing to confounding factors such as high rates of spontaneous resolution and a subpopulation of warts that seem recalcitrant to most treatments.

Real‐life treatment of cutaneous warts with cantharidin podophyllin salicylic acid solution

CPS1 solution is a safe and promising treatment modality with a high clearance and high patient satisfaction rate for the management of cutaneous warts, particularly in children.

Treatment of Common and Plane Warts in Children with Topical Viable Bacillus Calmette‐Guerin

Topical immunotherapeutic BCG is a new, effective, safe treatment option for children with common and plane warts and no recurrences or side effects were observed in the BCG group.

Topical treatments for cutaneous warts.

There is a considerable lack of evidence on which to base the rational use of topical treatments for common warts, and the best available evidence was for simple topical treatments containing salicylic acid, which were clearly better than placebo.

Intralesional Candida Antigen Immunotherapy for the Treatment of Recalcitrant and Multiple Warts in Children

Intralesional injection of Candida antigen is an effective and safe therapy for children with multiple and recalcitrant cutaneous warts and appears to be an effective alternative for the treatment of warts.

Local treatments for cutaneous warts: systematic review.

Reviewed trials of local treatments for cutaneous warts were highly variable in methods and quality, and there was a paucity of evidence from randomised, placebo controlled trials on which to base the rational use of the treatments.

Pulsed Dye Laser Therapy for Pediatric Warts

It is found that pulsed dye laser therapy is safe, relatively effective, and worth considering as an additional therapeutic option for viral warts in children, although not as a first‐line therapy.

One‐Year Experience with Candida Antigen Immunotherapy for Warts and Molluscum

The experience suggests intralesional candida antigen may represent a treatment option for warts and molluscum contagiosum that is safe and effective and may be overestimated, as many patients were also treated concurrently with liquid nitrogen or other therapies.

Efficacy of intralesional injection of mumps-measles-rubella vaccine in patients with wart

This double-blind randomized controlled clinical trial was conducted on 24 patients with warts who were allocated to two groups including MMR group and normal saline group and the hypothesis was that MMR vaccine, via induction of cellular and humoral immune system, accelerates the destruction of virus and infected host cells.