Treatment of anabolic-androgenic steroid dependence: Emerging evidence and its implications.

  title={Treatment of anabolic-androgenic steroid dependence: Emerging evidence and its implications.},
  author={Gen Kanayama and Kirk J. Brower and Ruth I Wood and James I Hudson and Harrison G Pope},
  journal={Drug and alcohol dependence},
  volume={109 1-3},

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Anabolic androgenic steroid abuse in the United Kingdom: An update

Anabolic androgenic steroids (AASs) are prescribed for medical conditions related to low testosterone, but have potential to cause serious hepatotoxicity, plus possible neurotoxicity, nephrotoxicity and damage to the cardiovascular and reproductive systems.

The Central Effects of Androgenic-anabolic Steroid Use

Withdrawal from androgenic-anabolic steroids may lead to a range of somatic and psychiatric symptoms, and, in many cases, comprehensive treatment supervised by an endocrinologist and a psychiatrist is required.


Prevention of nonmedical use of anabolic androgenic steroids should be a public health priority because of the risk of adverse effects, including withdrawal syndrome.

Prolonged hypogonadism in males following withdrawal from anabolic-androgenic steroids: an under-recognized problem.

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Anabolic–Androgenic Steroids

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Side effects on non-reproductive organs and functions are summarized and physicians should be aware of the multitude of serious side effects when confronted with unclear symptoms.

Physical appearance concerns are uniquely associated with the severity of steroid dependence and depression in anabolic–androgenic steroid users

Limitations notwithstanding, the study is consistent with the notion that AAS users who experience appearance concerns are at heightened risk of co-morbid psychological dysfunction, and suggests that health-care systems may need to consider prioritising the sub-population of Anabolic-androgenic steroid users who experienced appearance concerns.

Iatrogenic dependence of anabolic-androgenic steroid in an Indian non-athletic woman

A case report of an Indian woman, who was prescribed n androlone decanoate injections by an unqualified medical practitioner to treat multiple non-specific somatic pains and reported weakness, leading to dependence for nandrolonedecanoate, supports the research finding of abuse potential of AAS.



Anabolic-androgenic steroid dependence: an emerging disorder.

The accumulating human and animal evidence showing that AAS may cause a distinct dependence syndrome is reviewed, and standard diagnostic criteria for substance dependence must be adapted slightly for cumulatively acting drugs such as AAS.

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  • 2002
A new model is proposed in which both the "myoactive" and psychoactive effects of Aas contribute to the development of AAS dependence, and when patients with AAS use disorders are compared with patients with other substance use disorders, both similarities and differences become apparent and have implications for treatment.

Psychological treatment of anabolic-androgenic steroid-dependent individuals.

Behavioural Manifestations of Anabolic Steroid Use

This paper reviews the published literature concerning the recognition and treatment of behavioural manifestations of AAS abuse and suggests that both acute physical and behavioural symptoms as well as long-term abstinence and recovery should be addressed.

Long-term psychiatric and medical consequences of anabolic-androgenic steroid abuse: a looming public health concern?

Anabolic–androgenic steroid dependence? Insights from animals and humans

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Issues for DSM-V: clarifying the diagnostic criteria for anabolic-androgenic steroid dependence.

The existing DSM criteria for substance dependence could be adapted for diagnosing AAS dependence with only small interpretive changes, and the existing literature and clinical experience with AAS-dependent individuals are suggested to suggest that the existing criteria should be adapted.

Anabolic androgenic steroid abuse and mood disorder: a case report.

The abuse of AAS has been associated with various psychiatric manifestations: sleep disorders, anxiety, labile mood, mania, depression, irritability, aggression, violence, suicidal and homicidal ideation and behaviour, psychosis, confusion and delirium.