Bromfenac ophthalmic solution 0.09 %: human aqueous humor concentration detected by high-performance liquid chromatography
PURPOSE To investigate whether topical diclofenac sodium 0.1% solution (Voltaren Ophthalmic) is as efficacious as topical ketorolac tromethamine 0.5% solution (Acular) in the treatment of established, chronic cystoid macular edema (CME) after uneventful phacoemulsification cataract extraction with posterior chamber intraocular lens (IOL) implantation. SETTING Referral-based vitreoretinal private practice. METHODS This randomized prospective study comprised 34 consecutive patients with clinical CME after uneventful phacoemulsification cataract extraction with posterior chamber IOL implantation who were referred to a private vitreoretinal practice for evaluation and management. Exclusion criteria included a history of previous intraocular surgery, vitreous loss during cataract surgery, CME, uveitis, and vitreoretinal pathology. The eye with CME was treated with 1 drop 4 times daily of diclofenac sodium 0.1% solution or ketorolac tromethamine 0.5% solution. Outcomes were measured by observing for improvement in CME and visual acuity. RESULTS Both treatment methods resulted in a significant reduction in CME and a significant improvement in visual acuity. Within 26 weeks, diclofenac reduced CME in 16 patients (89%) and ketorolac, in 14 patients (88%) (P =.92, confidence interval [CI] 95%). Within 26 weeks, diclofenac eliminated CME in 14 patients (78%) and ketorolac, in 12 patients (75%) (P =.86, CI 95%). The mean time to initial CME reduction was 7.5 weeks with diclofenac and 8.0 weeks with ketorolac (P =.41, CI 95%). The mean time to CME resolution was 13.6 weeks with diclofenac and 12.8 weeks with ketorolac (P =.49, CI 95%). CONCLUSIONS Diclofenac sodium 0.1% solution and ketorolac tromethamine 0.5% topical ophthalmic solution eyedrops were equally effective in reducing the severity and duration of CME after uneventful phacoemulsification with posterior chamber IOL implantation. Either solution may be considered for CME after cataract surgery, especially in patients who may not tolerate corticosteroid treatment.