Lipopolysaccharide-Binding Protein Downregulates Fractalkine through Activation of p38 MAPK and NF-κB
To determine whether low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) is able to reduce pulmonary inflammation and improve the survival in rats with endotoxin-induced acute lung injury (ALI). Rat ALI model was reproduced by injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) into tail vein. Rats were divided randomly into three groups: control group, ALI group, LMWH-treated group. Blood was collected and lung tissue was harvested at the designated time points for analysis. The lung specimens were harvested for morphological studies, streptavidin-peroxidase immunohistochemistry examination. Lung tissue edema was evaluated by tissue water content. The levels of lung tissue myeloperoxidase (MPO) were determined. Meanwhile, the nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) activation, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β) levels and high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) protein levels in the lung were studied. In survival studies, a separate group of rats were treated with LMWH or sterile saline after LPS administration. Then, the mortality was recorded. Treatment with LMWH after ALI was associated with a reduction in the severity of LPS-induced lung injury. Treatment with LMWH significantly decreased the expression of TNF-α, IL-1β, HMGB1 and ICAM-1 in the lung of ALI rats. Similarly, treatment with LMWH dramatically diminished LPS-induced neutrophil sequestration and markedly reduced the enhanced lung permeability. In the present study, LMWH administration inhibited the nuclear translocation of NF-κB in the lung. Survival was significantly higher among the LMWH-treated group compared with the ALI group. These data suggest that LMWH attenuates inflammation and prevents lethality in endotoxemic rats.