Treatment of Infectious Diarrhea in Children

  title={Treatment of Infectious Diarrhea in Children},
  author={Nur Haque Alam and Hasan Ashraf},
  journal={Pediatric Drugs},
Diarrheal diseases remain an important cause of childhood morbidity and death in developing countries, although diarrheal deaths have significantly declined in recent years, mostly due to successes in the implementation of oral rehydration therapy (ORT), which is the principal treatment modality.Diarrhea may occur for varied reasons; however, most episodes of diarrhea in developing countries are infectious in origin. Three clinical forms of diarrhea (acute watery diarrhea, invasive diarrhea… 

Anti-Diarrheal Effects of Diosmectite in the Treatment of Acute Diarrhea in Children

A number of studies have shown that diosmectite reduces the duration of diarrhea and decreases the frequency of bowel motions after 2 days of treatment in children with mild-to-moderate acute diarrhea.

Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli in Developing Countries: Epidemiology, Microbiology, Clinical Features, Treatment, and Prevention

SUMMARY ETEC is an underrecognized but extremely important cause of diarrhea in the developing world where there is inadequate clean water and poor sanitation. It is the most frequent bacterial cause

Acute Diarrheal Illness – The Most Common Medical Problem Worldwide

Diarrheal episodes are classically distinguished into acute and chronic based on their duration, and acute diarrhea is thus defined as an episode that has an acute onset and lasts no longer than 14 days; chronic diarrhea is defined as a episode that lasts longer than14 days.

Considerations in Assessing the Clinical Course and Severity of Rotavirus Gastroenteritis

Worldwide, viruses are the primary cause of diarrhea.1 Among enteric viruses, rotavirus is the major cause of severe diarrhea.1 Rotavirus is believed to account for 30% to 70% of pediatric

Risk factors for hospitalization of children with diarrhea in Shahrekord, Iran

Improving environmental sanitation, socio-economic status and establishing training programs for parents can reduce risk of hospitalization due to diarrhea in children, according to the results of this case-control study.

High-dose intravenous dexamethasone in the management of diarrheal patients with enteric fever and encephalopathy.

High dose intravenous dexamethasone, as an adjunct to appropriate antimicrobial therapy, substantially reduces mortality among diarrheal patients presenting with enteric encephalopathy.

Predictors of bacteremia in infants with diarrhea and systemic inflammatory response syndrome attending an urban diarrheal treatment center in a developing country*

  • M. J. ChistiS. SahaC. N. RoyM. Salam
  • Medicine, Biology
    Pediatric critical care medicine : a journal of the Society of Critical Care Medicine and the World Federation of Pediatric Intensive and Critical Care Societies
  • 2010
In infants presenting with diarrhea and systemic inflammatory response syndrome, coexistence of hypothermia and absent or uncountable peripheral pulse is strongly associated with bacteremia, and this patient group is associated with high case-fatality rates.

Introduction and Classification of Childhood Diarrhoea

Early and repeated episodes of childhood diarrhoea during periods of critical development, especially when associated with malnutrition, co-infections, and anemia may have long-term effects on linear growth, as well as on physical and cognitive functions.

Prolonged acute diarrhea in adults: Decades of observation from epidemiological perspective in urban Bangladesh

Differences in sociodemographic, clinical presentation and etiology varied with duration of diarrhea among adults.

Identification of diarrhoea causing viral agents and molecular characterisation of group of rotaviruses in children below five years from Mukuru slums, Nairobi county

Investigation of the prevalence of enteric diarrhoea-causing viruses in children less than five years of age in and around Mukuru slums in Nairobi County indicates that rotaviruses, norovirus, enteric adenoviruses and astroviruses are important causes of acute gastroenteritis in MukuruSlum Kenya, and rotavirus are the leading cause of viral gastrointestinal infections followed by adenOViruses.



Oral bacterial therapy reduces the duration of symptoms and of viral excretion in children with mild diarrhea.

Investigation of the clinical efficacy of oral administration of Lactobacillus in children with mild diarrhea found it is effective in rotavirus-positive and rotav virus-negative ambulatory children with diarrhea, and it reduces the duration of rotvirus excretion.

Efficacy and tolerability of racecadotril in acute diarrhea in children.

This study demonstrates the efficacy (up to 50% reduction in stool output) and tolerability of racecadotril as adjuvant therapy to oral rehydration solution in the treatment of severe diarrhea in infants and children.

Management of severe malnutrition and diarrhea

A standardized protocol based upon the above mentioned factors for the management of severely malnourished children with acute illnesses including diarrhea and implementation of the protocoi resulted in a 47% reduction in mortality in these children.

The Rational Use of Drugs in the Management of Acute Diarrhoea in Children

The book concludes that none of these preparations for paediatric practice has any documented benefits, some actually prolong diarrhoea, and others have been shown to produce severe and, in some cases, fatal side-effects.

Malnutrition is a determining factor in diarrheal duration, but not incidence, among young children in a longitudinal study in rural Bangladesh.

It is suggested that nutritional interventions alone are unlikely to reduce the high incidence of diarrhea, but that efforts to improve nutritional status may have a beneficial effect on the duration of diarrhea and its unfavorable nutritional consequences.

Reducing deaths from diarrhoea through oral rehydration therapy.

The strategy for controlling diarrhoea through case management, with special reference to ORT, is reported on, and the relationship between its implementation and reduced mortality is examined, and there are important lessons for evaluators.

Effect of oral folate on duration of acute infantile diarrhoea [letter].

The results show that the addition of oral folate to standard rehydration therapy is cheap non-allergenic and readily available and it reduces the duration of both rotaviral and non-rotaviral diarrhea in infants.

The magnitude of the global problem of acute diarrhoeal disease: a review of active surveillance data.

Morbidity rates were found to be highest in the 6-11 month age group, while the mortality rates were greatest in infants under 1 year of age and children 1 year old.

Lactobacillus GG promotes recovery from acute nonbloody diarrhea in Pakistan.

Responsibility for response was evident on Day 2 when the frequency of both vomiting and diarrhea was less in the Lactobacillus group, and the relevance of this finding to the management of diarrhea in the tropics is discussed.

Clinical and bacteriological evaluation of antibiotic treatment in shigellosis.

Although ampicillin therapy effectively shortened the clinical course of shigellosis, further studies are needed to determine whether convalescent excretion of shIGellae can be eliminated with either higher doses or a longer course of antibiotic therapy.