PURPOSE To describe the durability of treatment, virological and immunological response, and safety of an atazanavir/ritonavir (ATV/RTV)-based highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) regimen in treatment-naïve HIV-infected patients. METHODS This was a multicentre retrospective study. Medical charts of antiretroviral-na'i've HIV-infected adults who initiated ATV/RTV (300/100 mg) from January 2004 to December 2007 in 10 Canadian clinics were reviewed. Data were collected from time of ATV/RTV treatment initiation until discontinuation of ATV. Durability of treatment and time to virological response were estimated with Kaplan-Meier functions. Change in viral load, CD4 cell counts, and lipid parameters were assessed with linear regression analyses. RESULTS 176 patients were enrolled, 153 (86.9%) were male, and the majority (52.3%) were 40 to 54 years old. Duration of observation ranged from 1.6 to 56 months. The mean (SE) durability of treatment was 33.5 (0.7) months. There were 37 (21.0%) patients who discontinued ATV/ RTV, among whom 18 (10.2%) discontinued due to toxicity, suboptimal virological response, loss to follow-up, or death. The mean (SE) time to HIV viral load of <50 and <400 copies/mL was 6.6 (0.4) and 4.3 (0.3) months, respectively. At 96 weeks of treatment, least squares mean (LSM) estimated change in log10(HIV copies/mL) was -2.94 (P < .001) and +245 cells/mL (P < .001) for CD4 cell count. A significant LSM increase in HDL-C of 0.24 mmol/L (P = .007 for trend over time) was also observed; total cholesterol, triglycerides, and LDL-C increased over time but their change did not reach statistical significance. The most frequently reported adverse event was increased bilirubin (16.5%). CONCLUSIONS ATV/RTV-based first-line HAART regimen demonstrated durability and effectiveness and was well tolerated in treatment-naïve HIV-infected patients.